Central Pacific Railroad
Photographic History Museum
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|"A light car,
drawn by a single horse, gallops up to the front with its load of
men seize the end of a rail and start forward, the rest of the gang
taking hold by twos, until it is clear of the car. They come
forward at a run. At the word of command the rail is dropped
in its place, right side up with care, while the same process goes
on at the other
side of the car. Less than thirty seconds to a rail for each
gang, and so four rails go down to the minute ... close behind the
come the gaugers, spikers, and bolters, and a lively time they make
of it. It is a grand 'anvil
chorus' ... It is played in triple
time, 3 strokes to the spike. There are 10 spikes to a rail,
400 rails to a mile, 1,800 miles to San Francisco — 21,000,000
times those sledges to be swung: 21,000,000 times are they to come
their sharp punctuation before the great work of modern America is
complete." –Dr. William Abraham Bell, Newspaper, 1866
of the Rails, May 10, 1869, Promontory,
(Detail of Savage and Ottinger Stereoview, "Engineers
Chief Engineers for CPRR (Samuel Skerry Montague) and UPRR (Grenville
Wood. Also see the A.J.
transcontinental railroad was completed when the rails of the
Union Pacific, reaching westward from Omaha, Nebraska, and those of the
Central Pacific Railroad, reaching eastward from Sacramento, California
were joined, completing the coast-to-coast connection. The telegraph
signaled a waiting nation: "DONE!"
a poster showing the famous A.J. Russell photograph.)
Sacramento photographer and artist Alfred
A. Hart documented the CPRR
construction in 364 stereoviews.
... The Central Pacific company had thirty locomotives gayly decked ranged
on the city front, and at the signal of a gun announcing the driving of
the last spike on the road the locomotives opened a chorus of whistles,
and all the bells and steam whistles in the city joined."
Central Pacific Railroad Company of California was organized on June 28, 1861
by a group of Sacramento merchants
known later as the "Big
P. Huntington, [Gov.]
Hopkins, and Charles
Crocker); also called "The
Associates," they are best remembered for
having built the western portion of
the first transcontinental railroad ("the Pacific Railroad") through California,
Nevada, and Utah. A.J. Russell View
at Promontory Summit.
Courtesy National Park Service. (Right)
mountain route for the rail line was first conceived and surveyed by
Dutch Flat, California gold prospector and drugstore owner Dr.
Daniel W. Strong and
Dehone Judah, who obtained the financial backing of the California
group and won federal support in the form of the Pacific
Railroad Act, signed in 1862 by former railroad
lawyer Abraham Lincoln. C.E.
Watkins View at Cape
Horn. Courtesy Royal
Geographical Society. (Left) [More
required to be repaid after completion of construction, were issued to the Central
Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad Companies as they completed construction milestones,
and they were granted sizable parcels of land along
the entire length of the track as an added incentive, placing the CPRR and UPRR
in competition — a race to the finish at an undetermined meeting point.
Railroad Construction 1863-1869
Last Spike" by Thomas Hill (detail in gold, rear cover).
The Central Pacific began
laying track eastward from Sacramento, California in 1863,
and the Union Pacific started laying track westward from Omaha, Nebraska,
two years later in July, 1865. To meet its manpower needs, the Central
Pacific hired thousands of Chinese laborers,
including many recruited from farms in Canton. The crew had the formidable
task of laying the track crossing California's rugged
Sierra Nevada mountain range and had to blast fifteen tunnels
to accomplish this. The crew of the Union Pacific, which was composed
largely of Irish immigrants and Civil War veterans, had to contend with
Indian attacks and the Rocky Mountains. On May 10, 1869, after completing
miles, 4,814 feet (2,859.66 km) of new track, the two rail lines
at Promontory Summit, Utah.
Gregor and Bruce C. Cooper.
Locomotive on Turntable (detail of A. A. Hart Stereograph #139)
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As second in command of the most formidable engineering project of
the 19th century, Lewis M. Clement was in charge of locating and constructing
the first transcontinental railroad over California's Sierra Nevada Mountains,
including blasting the Summit Tunnel through
1,660 feet of solid granite using black power, and building 40 miles of
Snowsheds to keep the track clear during winter blizzards.
Tunnel No. 15
Lewis Metzler Clement was the engineer in direct charge of
the final location, design and construction of the CPRR Division between
Colfax and Truckee (miles 75 to 120), by far the most difficult section
of the entire Pacific Railroad which included Cape Horn, the Sierra tunnels,
and the snowsheds.
" ... The ... crews worked round the clock
... Then, at one in the morning on May 3, 1867, a great, noisy crumbling
took place at the east facing, and light from torches in the west could
flickering through the dust. ... The Summit had been pierced. The
Sierras had been bested. ... young Lewis Clement, the engineer in
charge of Summit Tunnel, strode into the now widened bore a week after the
breakthrough, surveyor's instruments in hand. With torchbearers stationed
every few yards in the 1,659-foot bore, Clement began his first series of observations
in the damp and eerie tunnel. During the preceding two years' work he and
his assistants had been measuring under conditions never taught about in
engineering schools. They had made their calculations under poor visibility on
a wildly uneven tunnel floor, plotting a bore not only divided into four distinct
parts, but one that had to gradually rise, descend, and curve as it penetrated
from west to east. ... the
expected margin of error was large, and if the various bores were seriously
misaligned, many months of expensive remedial work would have to be done,
delaying the Central Pacific Railroad's progress east. ...
As Clement finished his measurements and worked out the geometric statistics
at a rude desk near the tunnel mouth, he found his most fervent prayers
answered. Summit Tunnel's four bores fitted together almost perfectly, with a
total error in true line of less than two inches. The seemingly impossible had
been achieved. The longest tunnel anyone had cut through natural granite, cut
at a daunting altitude in an abominable climate, had been bored by a small army
of Chinese thousands of miles from their ancestral home. The Sierras were truly
breached and ... the great race across the continent was on. ... " —A
Great And Shining Road. By Professor John Hoyt Williams
In addition he had similar charge of the final
200 miles of the line across Nevada and Utah ending at Promontory Summit. In
February, 1869, Clement was appointed as one of four members of the Special
U.S. Pacific Railroad Commission to inspect and
approve the railroad’s location and construction and help to determine
the very sticky issue of where the CPRR and UPRR would finally meet. Once
the line opened in 1869 Clement added the duties of CPRR Superintendent
of Track, a position he held until 1881.
L. M. Clement went on to design and build
(also using Chinese
laborers) the Southern
Railroad line from Sacramento to Los Angeles via the
San Joaquin Valley, and also worked on many urban and cable
car lines. Among his works in the area was the design of the
cable car turntable at the foot of Market Street in San Francisco.
Leland Stanford also sought Clement's help to set up the Mechanical and
Electrical Engineering Departments at Stanford
In an 1887 statement
submitted to the U.S.
Pacific Railway Commission, Lewis M. Clement summarized
the challenges and great obstacles — both physical and financial —
which had to be overcome to build the CPRR:
the beginning of the construction, the company, knowing the political
and commercial necessities demanding the rapid completion
of the railroad, determined that nothing which was in their power to prevent
should for a single day arrest its progress.
"With this determination in view all energies were bent,
fully realizing the physical obstacles and financial difficulties to be
"The financial difficulties were not lessened by the opinions
circulated to the effect that the obstacles were insurmountable; that the
railroads then constructed in Europe were as bagatelles compared with the
difficulties to be met in constructing the Central Pacific Railroad, and
failure was clearly written on the rocky sides of the cañons and
the bold granite walls of the Sierra Nevada mountains.
"Not only was it impossible to construct a railroad across
the Sierras via Donner Pass, but owing to the great depth of snow, some
years reaching an aggregate fall of nearly 50 feet, would be impracticable
to operate, and if built must be closed to traffic in the winter months,
which would have been the case had not the road been protected at great
cost by snow sheds.
"Against these utterances from men of railroad experience
the company had to battle in financial circles, forcing them to show that
they were not attempting an impossibility, though always realizing the
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- "Eastward to Promontory: A Brief
History of the CPRR Construction."
- "Riding the Transcontinental
Rails: Overland Travel on the Pacific Railroad - Introduction."
- "The Story of the Central Pacific. The Rise of the Big Four:
Huntington, Stanford, Crocker, and Hopkins." by W. F. Bailey The Pacific Monthly, January, 1908.
the Central Pacific Railroad—A Narrative History."14
First Transcontinental Railroad." (Part 1) -
by Elizabeth Gibson.5
Experience: Transcontinental Railroad."22
& Learn: The Transcontinental Railroad."36
Transcontinental Railroad: The Pathway that United a Nation." by
Brendan Nee and Preston Theler
a Road; Financing; Construction; Post
Construction; Sources." Courtesy
- "Railroads Shipped by Sea." by
Wendell W. Huffman. Railroad History, 1999.25
- "When Railroads Were New: The
First Transcontinental Railroad." by C.F. Carter, 1910.
- "Railroad Maps of the United
States." by A.M. Modelski, 1975.3
Workmen of the Pacific Railway." by John Sutton, NPS, 1978.
Railroad: Different Faces Behind 'The Work of the Age'." by Dawn
Emord & David Bushong9
Rails and Iron Horses." Bureau of Land Management, 1995.
Field Trip: Promontory, Utah Golden Spike National Historic Site." by
Tom Allen, Old Dominion University.
West and the Railroads." by Sidney Dillon, 1891.1
of California. Book IV, Ch. V-VI. Pacific Railroads." by Theodore
Henry Hittell. N.J. Stone & Co.,
the Union Pacific" (Parts 1,
- "People: Asa
Whitney (1791-1874); CPRR: Theodore
Judah (1826-1863), Big Five– Leland
Stanford (1824-1893), Collis
P. Huntington (1821-1900), Mark
Hopkins (1813-1878), Charles
Crocker (1822-1885), Edwin
Bryant Crocker (1818-1875); UPRR: Thomas
Clark Durant (1820-1885), Oakes
Ames (1804-1873), Grenville
Dodge (1831-1916), Jack
Casement (1829-1909) and Frances Jennings Casement (1840-1928)."22
- "Railroads America." 1927.
Last Spike is Driven." Utah
Historical Quarterly, 37(1), Winter 1969.
of the Overland." by Robert Lardin Fulton. San Francisco,
A. M. Robertson, 1924.
Stories," a Pinnacle Webs fiction anthology – railroad
literature of a past era.
Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg
Address Powerpoint Presentation," 11/19/1863.
History of the Universe in 200 Words or Less." by Eric Schulman.
IN THE 19th CENTURY and STEREOSCOPY
Railroad Photographs of Alfred A. Hart, Artist," by
Mead B. Kibbey. California State Library Foundation, 1995.
Hart: Photographer of the Central Pacific Railroad." by
Glenn Willumson. History of Photography, 1988.
of Carleton Watkins." Courtesy of Steve
- "The Great West Illustrated in a series of photographic views
across the continent taken along the line of the Union Pacific
Railroad west from Omaha, Nebraska." by A.J. Russell,
- "Contributions to the Physiology of Vision ... Binocular
Vision." by Charles Wheatstone, 1838.29
Silver Sunbeam: ... Photographic ... Collodion, Albumen ... Stereography." 1864.
Eye and the Camera." Harper's Monthly, September, 1869.1
- "Nineteenth Century Photography: Stereo
and Albumen Prints." Scovill, 1888.
Plate Photography." PBS, The American Experience.
Wendell Holmes – His pioneer Stereoscope and the later Industry." by
George E. Hamilton, Newcomen Society, 1949.
- "Double Exposure: A Visual History of the Stereoscope." by Del
Photographs: history, science and preservation." Stanford
Albumen Salted Paper Book: The History and Practice of Photographic
Printing, 1840-1895" by James M. Reilly, 1980.
A. Hart Biography from Mary Blessing's essay, "Alfred
A. Hart: Frontier Photographer," 1979.24
Photography." by Fritz G. Waack, 1985.29
from the 19th Century: A Process Identification Guide." by
William E. Leyshon, 2001.
STEREOSCOPIC ASSOCIATION — STEREO WORLD
FOR A RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC
- "Something New" by
S.W. Dexter. The [Ann Arbor]
Washtenaw County, Michigan, February 8, 1832. Courtesy
- "Dr. Hartwell Carver's Proposal
to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean."
- "Memorial of Asa Whitney
Praying for a Grant of Land to Enable Him to Construct a Railroad
from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean." 1848.
to the Pacific." The United States Democratic Review. 1848.1
- "Memorial of the Legislature
of Missouri to Congress on the Central Pacific Railroad," 1849.
- "Memorial of the Memphis
Convention ..." House of Representatives, Committee on
Naval Affairs, 1850.
of Robert Mills, Proposing a Plan for a Railroad and Telegraphic
with the Pacific Ocean." U.S. Senate, 1852.
Pacific Railroad and How it is to be Built." Putnam's
of the House Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad and Telegraph,"
Practical Plan for Building the Pacific Railroad." By T.D.
Judah, 1857. Courtesy Virtual
Museum of San Francisco.
- "The Origin of the Idea
[for a Pacific Railroad]."
Journey from New York to San Francisco ... : Ch.
to the Pacific." by
Horace Greeley, 1859. Courtesy The
Yosemite Web. Summary21
Railroad Convention, San Francisco, February, 1860 (Extract of
- "An Act to Incorporate the 'People's Pacific Railroad Company'
of the State of Maine," March, 1860.
Communication with the Pacific: Central Pacific Railroad." The
Galaxy. 4(8), 1867.1
Policy of Extending Government Aid to Additional Railroads to
the Pacific by Guaranteeing
Interest on their Bonds." Report of the Majority of the
Senate Committee on Pacific Railroad, 1869.
AND SURVEYS, c. 1853 [References]—[Maps]
Expansion – Railroad Surveys." National Park Service.18
Railroad Survey Reports." Twelve Volumes (On-line1,
Railroad Surveys." by Jack Petree, Ingersoll-Rand.
- "Official Explorations for Pacific Railroads, 1853-1855." By
George Leslie Albright, 1921.
- "Jefferson Davis, George
McClellan & the Pacific RR Explorations & Surveys."
War Dept. Instructions, 1853.
- "Report to the President." Secretary
of War, 1854. (From the Library of T. D. Judah.)
Expedition to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah." by
Howard Stansbury, U.S. Army. Corps of Topographical Engineers. Philadelphia,
Lippincott, Grambo and Co., 1855.1 
Memoir Upon Upper California in Illustration of his Map of Oregon
and California, by John Charles Frémont." 1849.
- "Col. Fremont's Exploration
the Central Railroad Route to the Pacific." 1854.
- "A Report Relative
to Captain Gunnison's Survey, &c." War Department,
- "Report of Explorations Across the Great Basin on the Territory
of Utah" by James H. Simpson, 1859.1
- Steel Engravings
& Lithographed Maps -- 41st Parallel: Utah, Nevada and California,
of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and
economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the
Pacific Ocean." United States War Dept., 1855.3
RR Surveys Beckwith Report (Utah-Nevada-California), 1854.
Great Reconnaissance." Later Western
Surveys. National Park Service.18
- "Lewis Metzler Clement:
A Pioneer of the Central Pacific Railroad."
- Lewis M. Clement’s
Statement to the U.S. Pacific Railway Commission, 1887
Skerry Montague, (1830-1883), CPRR Chief Engineer."12
of Stephen Allen Curry, 1864-1865.13
Dehone Judah, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Died November 2D, 1863." Trans.
Am. Soc. Civil Engineers. n.d.30, 36
Dehone Judah–Railroad Pioneer" by John D. Galloway.
Civil Engineering, 1941. Courtesy ASCE.
Sketch of the Life of Theodore D. Judah" by
Carl I. Wheat. California Historical Society Quarterly, 1925.13
Memoriam: Theodore D. Judah, CPRR Chief Engineer." Died November 2,
Mullen Dodge, (1831-1916), UPRR Chief Engineer."23 [Portraits]
- CPRR Biographical Notes from the Lynn D. Farrar Collection.
FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD"
by civil engineer John Debo Galloway
"NPS HISTORICAL HANDBOOK: GOLDEN SPIKE
NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE"
R.M. Utley & F.A. Ketterson, Jr., 1969.18
Cover / Contents / CPRR
Map / UPRR
RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION — INCLUDING 19th CENTURY ACCOUNTS
the Central Pacific Rail Road of California–1863-1869" from
Governor: The Life and Legacy of Leland Stanford – A California Colossus by
Norman E. Tutorow, Ph.D., (Ch. 6, pp. 213-303),
© 2004. [Chapter
N.E. Tutorow and The
Arthur H. Clark Company.
- "The First Rail Laid."
Sacramento Daily Union, October 27, 1863.
Report of George E. Gray, ... upon the Constructed Road and the
Located Route, made July 31, 1865."
- California Newspaper Articles, 1865-1866.
Big Four and the 'Dutch Flat swindle.'" by Mark McLaughlin, Sierra
Sun, July 29, 2004.
Central Pacific Railroad," Debow's Review, 4(4):383-384,
of James Abram Kleiser (1818 – 1906)."
Manuscript, 1885. Courtesy
Harry A. Kleiser & the Cloverdale
Collection: Their Man in Omaha." UPRR Letters 1866-1871,
edited by D. Weber, B. Combs, and D. Snoddy. (Book excerpt)
- Newspaper account of "Going
to the Front," August,
- Nitroglycerine and
the Central Pacific ... Terrible Explosion in San Francisco
... by G.
Accounts of Track Laying."18
blazes on the Central Pacific Railroad." [Truckee roundhouse
fire, March 29, 1869] by By Gordon Richards, Sierra
Sun, April 8, 2005.
- "Tunnels of the Pacific Railroad."
Van Nostrand's Eclectic Engineering Magazine, 1870.
Story of the First Trans-continental Railroad: Its Projectors,
Construction and History." by William Francis Bailey, Pittsburgh
Printing Co., 1906.37
Railroad Record That Defies Defeat: How Central Pacific laid ten
miles of track in one day back in 1869." by Erle Heath, Southern
Pacific Bulletin, 1928.
Record of the Central Pacific by Days, 1868-1869." by
Lynn D. Farrar.
- "Reminiscenses of Alexander Toponce." Autobiography,
- Utah construction on Promontory Summit, accounts from newspaper articles, 1869. Notes courtesy of Robert L. Spude, Ph.D., NPS.
- "Dates CPRR Opened for
from ICC Report, 1916.
- "The Building of
the Iron Road." Overland Monthly, May, 1869.
- "The Pacific
Railroad - Unopen." Overland Monthly, September,
- "Magnificent Celebrations
... Universal Rejoicing, Enthusiasm and Jubilee." May
the Rails - East & West." New York Times, May 10, 1869.
Railroad - The Last Spike." New York Times, May 11,
Pacific R.R. Finished ... " Salt Lake Daily Telegraph,
May 11, 1869.18
Francisco News Letter and California Advertiser." Describing
the second gold spike, May, 1869.
Railroad Celebration in Honor of the Completion of the National
Railway Across the Continent." 1869. Courtesy
California State Library.
Completion of the Pacific Railroad" Harper's
New Monthly Magazine, July, 1869, pp. 292-295.1
Last Tie"by Dr. J.D.B. Stillman, Overland Monthly,
July, 1869.1 [Text18]
at Promontory May 10, 1869." by Paul L. Hedren.18
- "Promontory Summit, May 10, 1869 ... " by
Robert L. Spude, 2005.18
Lemon – Old Timer: Fired Engine at Golden Spike Driving May 10,
1869." Union Pacific Magazine, 1924.
Witness Tells of 'Last Spike' Driving." by Erle Heath, Southern
Pacific Bulletin, May, 1926.
Last Spikes." 18
Railroads Are Coming 1860-1873" (chapter ten of Vanished
Waters: A History of San Francisco's Mission Bay)
by Nancy J. Olmsted
the Mississippi." by Albert D. Richardson, 1869.
- "Where to Emigrate, and Why."
by Frederick R. Goddard, 1869.
- "Our First Century: Completion
of the Pacific Railroad."
Pacific Railroad." by Henry V. Poor. The North
American Review, 128(271):664-681, June, 1879.1
- "'The Last Spike' A Painting by Thomas
Hill ..." 1881 (Description by the Artist).
Last Spike" (Part 1), January 29, 1881; (Part
2) and "Hill’s
'Last Spike'—Historical Inaccuracies—Humors and
Minor Incidents," February 5, 1881. San Francisco News Letter and
Moments: Driving the Last Spike ..." Scribner's
- "CPRR Depot in Sacramento." Newspaper
Reorganization: Union Pacific." By Stuart Daggett, Ph.D.,
Harvard Economic Studies, 1908. [In
We Built the Union Pacific Railway" by Grenville Mellen Dodge,
Chief Enginer, c. 1910.
Lucin Cut-Off." by Frederick M. Huchel, History of Box
Elder County, Utah.26
- "The Railroad Builders." by
John Moody, 1919 — Chapter
VI. "Linking the Oceans."
Way Pioneer Builders Met Difficulties ..." by J. O. Wilder, Southern
Pacific Bulletin, November,
Trail to Rail — A
History of the Southern Pacific Company." Southern Pacific
Frontier Index [Newspaper]: Chronicle
of a World on Wheels." by Scott B. Eckberg.18
- "Henry Root, Surveyor, Engineer
... Personal History and Reminiscences ... 1921."
Years of Progress. An Historical Sketch of the Southern Pacific
1869-1944." by Erle Heath.
Sacramento General Shops: Southern Pacific Company – Pacific
D.L. Joslyn, 1948.
- "The Sacramento Locomotive Works of the Central
Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroads, 1864-1999." by Gordon
Chappell, CRM #10, 1999.
- "Driving the Last Spike
at Promontory, 1869." by J. N. Bowman, 1957.13 [Comments]
at Promontorry: A New Look at the Golden Spike Ceremony" by
- "UP Locomotive #119 & CP
#60, Jupiter at Promontory Summit, Utah, May 10, 1869." by
Roy E. Appleman, 1966.18
- "Utah's Role in the Pacific
Railroad." by John J. Stewart, 1969.
and the Transcontinental Railroad." by Bill Bingham.18
Rails: Ogden Union Railway & Depot Company." by Don Strack,
- "Ogden Rails: Central Pacific and Southern Pacific." by Don
Materials on the Pacific Railway." by John Sutton.18
Construction Scene." by
- "Central Pacific Railroad Elevations."
Waterworks at Argenta, Nevada." by
James D'Angelo, Nevada Archaeologist, 1993. Courtesy
of the author.
- "The Central Pacific Railroad and the
Legend of Cape Horn." by Edson T. Strobridge, 2001.6
Theory or Myth on Cape Horn." April 19, 2004.
Route Stations and Mileage: Introduction; 1866-1903:
Reno-Ogden; Sources." by
Book: "Southern Pacific System: List of Officers, Agencies and
Stations. 1899." Courtesy
Lynn D. Farrar.
RAILROAD TRAVEL — 19th CENTURY ACCOUNTS
Pacific Railroads." Atlantic Monthly, December, 1867.1
Pacific Railroad." Debow's Review, 1867.1
- "Incidents af a Trip Through The Great Platte Valley To
The Rocky Mountains And Laramie Plains." by Silas Seymour,
Diary Account by Capt. John Charles Currier of the 21st U.S. Infantry
at Promontory on May 10, 1869." 18
the Continent." George M. Pullman Excursion, June
18, 1869 letter to The New York Times.
to the Pacific." by Albert D. Richardson, New York Tribune,
- "The Pacific Railroad Open.
How to Go: What to See." Samuel Bowles, 1869.
New West: Records of Travel between the Mississippi River and the
Pacific Ocean." Samuel Bowles, 1869.3
1870 Excursion On-board Newspaper.
Excursion of Railroad Agents, 1870."
of the Promontory Area."18
It." Mark Twain, 1871.3, 10
to railroad passages.] [Map]
Schafer's 1871 Diary: Travel on the Transcontinental Railroad."
- "California: How to Go There, and What
to See by the Way." Harper's Monthly, May, 1872.
For Health, Pleasure, and Residence. A Book for Travellers and
Settlers." Charles Nordhoff, 1872.
Most Eventful Journey in the History of Railroading: 36-day blizzard-filled
transcontinental adventure." Walter Scott
Fitz, letter, 1872.
Few Hints on the California Journey." by Susan Coolidge, Scribner's
Monthly, May, 1873.
- "Pacific Railroad
Traveler's Letter," San Francisco, California, William Smith,
Overland Railways." Overland Monthly, January 1875.1
of Overland Travel.–Palace Car Life
on the Pacific Railroad." from Williams'
Pacific Tourist, 1876.1
- Emigrant Woman's First Person Account of Travel on the Transcontinental
Railroad. Letter, 1877.
Transcontinental Tourist; The Writings and Travels of Miriam F.
- "Across the Continent."
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, February 9, 1878.
- "Between the Gates." by
Benjamin F. Taylor, 1878.
- "A Few Hints To Overland
Travelers from The Illustrated
Railroad Guide of the Union and Central Pacific Railroads." Adams,
Louis Stevenson's 1879 transcontinental railroad trip: "Across
audio: Stanford Faculty lecture by David M. Kennedy, "The Railroad:
A Stanford Romance."
- "Daily Notes of a Tour ... across the
1883 Emigrant Train" From the journals of Per Gustav & Nancy
Leanore (Vaughn) Hindorff. Transcribed
Railways." Harper's Monthly, November, 1883.1
Travel and Rest Stops." by
- "Bits of Travel at Home." 1887.
FRANCISCO & THE CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD
- City Views of 19th Century San
Francisco - Photographs and Stereoviews.
Souvenir of San Francisco, Cal." View Book by C. P. Heininger,
San Francisco, Cal., c. 1887.
- Pacific Railroad Bond, City and County of San Francisco,
- San Francisco Bay Area Railroad Map, Rand McNally, c. 1878.
- "Map of
Railroads from San Francisco to Sacramento" from the Specimen
Book of Electrotypes, 1885.
- "Guide Map of the Rail and Stage Routes to the Yosemite,
Big Trees and the Geysers" from the Specimen Book of Electrotypes,
- "Map of Oakland, California, including the CPRR Long Wharf"
from the Specimen Book of Electrotypes, 1885.
- Engraving of "View
on S. P. R. R." from
Book of Electrotypes, 1885.
- Market Street Railway Map of San Francisco, including cable cars,
- "Souvenir of the Palace Hotel" An
Illustrated Booklet published by the Palace Hotel, San
Francisco, c. 1895.
- Autograph Letter Signed
on Palace Hotel Stationary by Sen. Aaron A. Sargent,1884.
- CPRR San Francisco to Reno Round Trip Excursion Ticket, 1881.
- Market Street Railway Company Stock Certificate
- "A Few Hints on the California Journey." by
Susan Coolidge, Scribner's Monthly, May, 1873.
- Panoramic View of The Golden
Gate, Fort Point, and San Francisco Bay as seen from "Land's End" near
Sutro Heights, c. 1895.
- STEAMERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY & THE SACRAMENTO RIVER
Steam Navigation Co. Sacramento River Steamers Chrysopolis and
Pacific and Leased Railroads Locomotives, Cars, Steamers and Barges." 1878.
Railroad Ferry Steamer Solano." by Robert L. Harris, Trans.
Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, 1890.
the World's Largest Ferry Boat, the CPRR "Solano" Courtesy
- "Model of the World's Largest Ferry Boat, the CPRR Solano." by
T. Rubarth, W. Rubarth, and J. Turner, 2003.
- Steamer & Highway
Route Map, Connections to Steamers, Ticket Agencies, Schedule of
Rates of Fares and Accomodations, 1932.
MUSIC & POEMS
TIMETABLES, TRAVEL GUIDES & SCHEDULES; VIEW BOOKS
- "Railway & Travel Guides and
the Pacific Railroad."
- "Pacific Coast Railroad Gazetteer." H.S. Crocker & Co.,
Sacramento, May, 1870.
- "Nelsons' Pictorial Guide-Books:
Central Pacific Railroad." 1871.
Official Railway Guide for the United States and Canada. June,
Pictorial Guide Books: Scenery of the Union Pacific Railroad." 1871.
- "Nelsons' Pictorial Guide-Books: The Yosemite Valley, and The
Mammoth Trees and Geysers of California" c. 1871.
- "The Union Pacific Railroad: A Trip Across the North American
Continent from Omaha to Ogden." Nelson's Pictorial Guide-Books,
- "Crofutt's Trans-Continental Tourist's Guide." by
George A. Crofutt, 1871.33
Trans-Continental Tourist's Guide." by George A. Crofutt, 1872.
to Go West." Horton & Leonard,
Railroad Printers, Chicago, 1872.
Atlantic to the Pacific: What to See, and How to See It." by
John Erastus Lester, 1873. Courtesy The
Rock Island & Pacific Railroad Timetable, c. 1873.
Pacific Tourist." 1876.1
- CPRR Sacramento to Newcastle Timetable, 1864.
- Central Pacific Railroad
Schedule with Timetable and Route Map, 1869.14
Pacific Railroad Timetable & Map, May, 1869.30, 36
Pacific Railroad Timetable & Map, 1869.30, 36 Courtesy CSRM.
Timetables from the "Travelers'
Official Railway Guide for the United States and Canada." October,
1878. Courtesy Douglas
Overland Route via Central Pacific, Western Pacific, and
... Union Pacific Railroad, Timetable, May, 1870.30, 36
Pacific RR & Union Pacific RR Timetable, May, 1879.30, 36
Timetables from the "Travellers' Official Guide of the Railway
and Steam Navigation Lines in the United States and Canada" 1880.
- CPRR/UPRR "Overland Route" Timetable & Transcontinental
Railroad Map, 1881.
- Central Pacific Railroad Timetable, "Traveller's Guide," May
Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad Timetable, 1882, with fare
and route map.
of Pennsylvania Railroad Sceneries."
Coast Souvenir." View Book by E.S. Denison, Oakland, California,
Overland Trail: From The Golden Gate to The Great Salt Lake, Along
the Southern Pacific – The Road of a Thousand Wonders."
Official Guide of the Railways." 1910.
Official Guide of the Railways." 1921.
- New! "The
Official Guide of Railways" for 1868, 1870, 1877, 1878, 1881, 1889,
1891 and 1895 on DVD courtesy of David Hensley, Jr., Tap Lines.
Station List, 1889.
Pacific Lines "Overland" Route Time Tables & Pullman
Rates December, 1945.
DOCUMENTS & REPORTS
- "State of Railroads ... including
the Prospects for a Pacific Railroad." Seventh U.S.
- "Annual Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office
to the Secretary of the Interior, 1861."
- "Abstract from the 1862 Annual Report of the Commissioner of the General
Land Office to the Secretary of the Interior relating to Government Land
Grants made under the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862."
- "First CPRR Annual Report with
Theodore D. Judah's Chief Engineer's Report." 1863.
- Executive Order, Fixing the Point
of Commencement of the Pacific Railroad at Council Bluffs, Iowa."
of Board Convened to Determine on a Standard for Construction
of the Pacific Railroad." Interior Department, 1866.
Commissioners Reports, Sacramento to Promontory, 1864 - 1869." Courtesy of Lynn D. Farrar.
of the Special Commissioners upon the Central Pacific Railroad
27, 1869. [Also as]
- "Credit Mobilier."
Congressional testimony of C. P. Huntington, 1873.
- "Condition of the Union Pacific
- "Report of
the Survey of the Central and Union Pacific Railways." 1877.
of the Government Directors of the Union Pacific Railroad for
the Year Ending June
- "Transcontinental Railroads.
History of Construction." Commissioner of Railroads, 1883.
on Transcontinental Railways." Secretary of War, 1883.
- "Lease of Central Pacific Railroad Company to Southern Pacific
Company." Original Lease, February 17, 1885, & modifications.
- Legislative History of the First
Transcontinental Railroad from the Congressional Globe3
... of the United States Pacific Railway Commission." 188737 >
[III] [IV] [V]
[VII] [VIII] [Index
- Historic American
Engineering Record: CPRR. National Park Service,
American Engineering Record: Southern Pacific Company, Sacramento
Landscape Report: Golden Spike National Historic Site." by
C. Homstad, J. Caywood, and P. Nelson NPS #16, 2000.18 [Promontory
Unheralded Resources of Golden Spike National Historic Site." by
A.B. Anderson & R.
Wilson, CRM #10, 1999, pp.12-14.18
& UPRR REPORTS
of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, Incorporated:
June 28, 1861."
of the Chief Engineer on the preliminary survey, cost of construction,
and estimated revenue of the Central Pacific Railroad
of California, across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, from Sacramento
to the eastern boundary of California, October 22, 1862."
Annual Reports", 1863-1866; "Routes Explored, ... Surveys," T.
D. Judah, et. al., 1863-1868. [Also see Judah's
Pacific Railroad Company, November 30, 1864 (Resolutions)".
Abraham Lincoln Papers.3
- "Pacific Railroad. Speech of Hon. Leland Stanford in the
Constitutional Convention of ... Nevada ..." 1864.
Pacific Railroad. A Defense Against its Enemies, with Report
... to ... San Francisco." 1864.
of ... Receipts and Expenses and Estimated Revenue ... " CPRR,
- "Statement made to Senate Committee of the Nevada Legislature." CPRR,
Pacific Railroad Statement Made to the President of the United
States, and Secretary of the Interior, on the Progress of the
Work, October 10th, 1865." H.S. Crocker & Co., Printers,
92 J Street, Sacramento. Courtesy
Sacramento Archives and Museum Collection Center.
of the Chief Engineer upon Recent Surveys and Progress of Construction
of the Central Pacific Railroad of California."
December, 1865. Courtesy
Statement Made by the Central Pacific Railroad of California
for the Consideration
of Capitalists." by C.P. Huntington, 1865.
- "First Mortgage Bonds of the
CPRR ... Business Prospects ..." Fisk & Hatch, NY, 1867.
Communication Across the Continent." CPRR Bond Prospectus, 1868.
of the Union Pacific Railroad West from Omaha, Nebraska, Across
the Continent ..." 1868.1
of the Railroad of the United States: UPRR/CPRR" by
Henry V. Poor 1868. Courtesy Douglas
Annual Report." 1869 (reporting joining of the rails).2
to the Union Pacific Railroad Lands." Union Pacific Railroad
- "Report to the Stockholders
of the Union Pacific Railroad." 1871. [Rail
Cars; UPRR Locomotives]
- "To the Bondholders of the Central and Western Pacific Railroad
Companies." Fisk & Hatch, Bankers, 1871.37
of Railroads of the United States for 1873-74" by
Henry V. Poor. [with CPRR Status, Dec., 1872]
and Regulations to be Observed by the Locomotive Engineers in the
Employ of the Central Pacific Railroad Company." 1874.30,
Pacific Railroad Annual Report, 1876." [Passengers
Carried; Freight; Map]
Report of the Board of Directors of the Central Pacific Railroad
Co. to the Stockholders, For the Year ending December 31st, 1878."
Report of the Board of Directors of the Central Pacific Railroad
Co. to the Stockholders, For the Year ending December 31st, 1883."
Report of the Directors of the Union Pacific Railway Company to
the Stockholders. For the Year ending December 31st,
- "CPRR ... Rules for the Government of the Baggage Department."
Pacific Railroad and Leased Lines: Official List of Officers,
Stations, Agents; Table of Distances, Etc., Etc." General
Auditor's Office, San Francisco, 1884. H.S.
Crocker & Co.30 Courtesy Sacramento
FROM THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES & LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
- Executive order setting
the gauge of track on Pacific railroad, 1863.2
- UPRR's letter of acceptance
to the Pacific Railroad Act of 1863,2
- Executive order appointing
directors of the Union Pacific Railroad, 1864.2
- Executive order appointing
commissioners to examine the UPRR, 1864.2
- Executive order appointing
directors of the Union Pacific Railroad, 1864.2
- Letter from Thomas Durant,
asking for approval of location for the first 100 miles of UP track,
- Report from the Commissioners
of the Pacific Railroad Commission, January, 1869.2
- Report of the Engineer's
Office, CPRR, July, 1869.2
- Statement of Operations
of the Chief Engineer, UPRR. 1869.2
- Annual report of Central
Pacific Railroad to stockholders, July, 1869.2
Annual Report, 1869, announcing the connection of its rails with
those of CPRR.2
- Annual report of the
Union Pacific Railroad sent to Secretary of Interior, September,
to The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress (Pacific
Lincoln signature courtesy of The History
- Annual Report of
Central Pacific Railroad to the Secretary of Interior, December,
- "Chinese Contribution to the First Transcontinental Railroad."
- "A History of the Chinese in
California: The Railroads."
- "Chinese Laborers and the Construction
of the Central Pacific." Utah Historical Quarterly, 1969.
- "Chinese by the Numbers," Chapter
4, from Nameless Builders of the Transcontinental Railroad by
William F. Chew, © 2004, Courtesy of the author.
- "Fusang: The Chinese Who Built America:
The Chinese Railroad Men."
- "California: A Book for Travellers
and Settlers." by Charles Nordhoff, 1873.
- "The Chinese at Promontory,
Utah, April 30 - May 10, 1869." by Edson T. Strobridge.
- "Report of the Joint Special
Committee to Investigate Chinese Immigration." U.S. Senate, 1877.
Immigration: The Social, Moral, and Political Effect of Chinese
Immigration." Senate Testimony by Creed Haymond,
c. 1876.37 [CPRR]
- " The Workmen of the Pacific Railway." by
Laborers In The West."17
- "Cathay in Eldorado: The Chinese in California." Keepsake
Series, 1972. [CPRR] Courtesy The
Book Club Of California.
Chinese in Winnemucca, Nevada." by
- "The Chinese in America: Transcontinental Railroad," by
Iris Chang, 2003.
- "The First Railway in China." Engineering News
and American Railway Journal.1896.
TRAVEL & SETTLEMENT BEFORE THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD
First Emigrant [Wagon] Train to California", 1841, The
Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 41(1), 1890.
- "Gazetteer: California, & Travel via Nicaragua, Panama, Cape
Horn & Overland." by John
- "Gazetteer: A Physical, Political & Economic
Description of the Utah Territory and Salt Lake City." by
John Hayward, 1851.
Traveller's and Tourist's Guide Through the United States of America,
Canada, Etc." by Wellington Williams, 1851.
Overland Guide, from ... Council Bluffs, [Iowa] ... to ... Sacramento,
California ..." 1852.
- "The Prairie Traveler.
A Hand-book for Overland Expeditions." Capt. Marcy, 1859.
the Overland Stage." Mark Twain, 1861.4
- "Dutch Flat Donner Lake Toll Wagon
Road, 1864." by Jack E. Duncan.
Flat and Donner Lake Wagon Road Co. toll house report." Courtesy Sacramento
Archives and Museum Collection Center.
the Plains." Diary of Sarah Raymond, 1865.4
of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846-1869." Utah Academic
Library Consortium [Search]
the Continent by Overland Stage." Schuyler Colfax, April
18, 1865 Letter.3
GENERAL RAILROAD TOPICS
of the Locomotive." by
M. N. Forney, Railroad Gazette, 1875.1
- "Railroad History: Online Guide to 19th Century and Scholarly
Sources." by Richard Jensen.
- "The Transfer of Pioneering British Railroad Technology to North
America." by Frederick C. Gamst.
the Railroad Will Bring Us," Overland Monthly, 1868.1
Future of American Railways." Atlantic Monthly, 1860.1
History of the First Locomotives In America." by
William H. Brown, 1871.
- Railroad articles from
Scribner's Magazine, 1888-1889.
- "Buyers' Guide and
Mechanics' Manual for the use of Railway Officials." 1874.
Comparative Merits of Iron & Steel Rails." London
Quarterly Review, July, 1866.
- "Effect of Railroads on the
Weather" Credit Where Credit is Due? Boston Traveller, 1869.
- "List of Rail Mills from the Directory of the Iron and Steel
Works of the United States." American Iron and Steel Institute,
- "Reminiscences of a Veteran Conductor: Forty Years On The
Rail" by Charles B. George, 1887.37
- "Broken Rail." 1892.
Evolution of the American Locomotive." (Part 1)
(Part II) -
by Herbert T. Walker, 1897.8
- "Railroad Story Book: A Thousand Miles by Rail." McLoughlin Bros, New
York, 1907. (Children's Book - Juvenile)
a [Baldwin] Locomotive is Built." The Railroad Man's Magazine
Fiction: "A Thrilling Tale. Running a Time Table.
A Brakeman's Story." 1873.
Railroad Fiction: "The Night Operator." by
Frank L. Packard, 1919.
of Trains on the Overland Route." War Department, 1867.
- "Behind the Scenes in Washington ... the Crédit
Mobilier Investigation" by E.W. Martin, 1873.
on the Report of the Committee of the Senate of the United States
the Credit Mobilier of America." by J.W. Patterson, 1873.
- "The Railroads
and the Centennial Exhibition of 1876."
- "Information for Travelers
by Rail," 1876.
Future of California Railroads." San Francisco
News Letter and California Advertiser, January 31, 1880.34
Sacramento Locomotive Works of the Central Pacific and Southern
Pacific Railroads, 1864-1999."18
of the Workings of the Railroad Hospital at
Sacramento, Cal." 1883. Courtesy
Official Railway Equipment Register." CPRR & UPRR, June,
- "Marvels of the New West: Railroads Over Mountains." by
William M. Thayer, 1887.8
- "Extracts from the Report of the U.S. Pacific Railway Commission,
1888." By Robt. E. Pattison.
Frank Norris, 1901.27 (Californians'
resentment of the Southern Pacific Railroad.)
Building of the Central Pacific Railroad" by
A. J. Wells, from A
History of the New California: Its Resources and People, 1905. Courtesy USGenNet.
- "A Surviving Shortline Contemporary
of the CPRR: The Belfast & Moosehead Lake Railroad." by Bruce C. Cooper
- "Corporate Family Tree
for the Union Pacific Railroad, including the Southern Pacific
and Central Pacific Railroads."
- "Refunding of the
Pacific Railroad Debts to the U.S. Government." Congressman
James G. Maguire, 1895.
Railroad Debts." by John T. Doyle, 1896.
Hewes: An Autobiography" Chapter from "Lieutenant
Joshua Hewes: A New England Pioneer and Some of His Descendants
..." by Eben Putnam, 1913.
Man Who Gave the Golden Spike. [David Hewes]" By
Robin Lampson, 1969.
- "California Men and Events, 1769-1890." by
George H. Tinkham, 1915.32 - Chinese - Railroad Age
Winning of the West." (Chapter 4) from The
Robber Barons by
Matthew Josephson, 1934.
- "Orphan Train Movement: A history of the Orphan Trains Era
in American History" by Mary Ellen Johnson, OTHSA, Inc.
- "The Old Central Pacific Hospital." By
J. Roy Jones, M.D.
Years at the Throttle." by Earl Heath, Southern Pacific Bulletin, 1926.
- "The Case of the Stranded Streamliner" The rescue of
SP's snowbound "City of San Francisco"at Yuba Pass, January
13-19, 1952. by Howard W. Bull "Trains & Travel" Vol
13, #3 January, 1953.
on history: From glaciers to fire." Truckee Histsory by Gordon
Richards, Sierra Sun, 2004.
Aboard: The Role of the Railroads in Protecting, Promoting, and
Selling Yellowstone and Yosemite National Parks." Masters Thesis,
- Today! News
Stories about the Transcontinental Railroad. Current News Headlines
from Google News
- "Making Tracks: Big Railroads Race to Cross U.S., Again." Wall Street Journal, 12/28/2004.
- "Encyclopedia of Western Railroad
History: Central Pacific Railroad." by Donald B. Robertson
Golden Spike is Missing." by Robin Lampson. The
Pacific Historian, 1970. Courtesy
University of the Pacific.
Last Gold Spikes at Promontory, Utah, May 10, 1869." by Edson T.
Express Brings First of Winter Tourists." by Mark
McLaughlin, Sierra Sun, 2005.
- "Directory of Published Photographs of Central Pacific Railroad
Locomotives" from data gathered by Eugene Lewis.25
- "J. B. Silvis, the Union Pacific's Nomadic Photographer."
by Barry A. Swackhamer
- "Iron Horse Along the
Truckee: The Central Pacific Reaches Nevada." by Wendell W. Huffman
Iron Horse and The Talking Wire." (searching for telegraph
insulators in Wyoming) by Mike Green
of the Sierra Storm King: A Weather History of Donner Pass." by
of Nature and Distant Connections; The Transcontinental Railroad
Revisited." The Doric Column
Utah History from Ogden
Anecdotes: Stories and Photos from Our First 50 Years by
Americans [Indians] and the Transcontinental Railroad"
of Southern Pacific Company 1890-1901." Timeline by Kyle Wyatt,
Railroadiana Collectibles." Dan Richins (with CPRR Corporate
History by Charles Sweet), Railroadiana Express, 199819
Pacific Locks." by Dan Getts, Railroadiana Express, 200219
Placer County Railroad War." by G.J. Graves
- "Rail Wear on a Sharp Curve Explained." by
Travis S. Johnson, 2004.
- "Historic Landmarks relating to the
First Transcontinental Railroad."
Track Standards." U.S. Army Technical Manual #5-628, 1991
Terms and Definitions." by Ed and Lara Golden
at the Transcontinental Railroad as the Internet of 1869." by Edward
Rothstein, New York Times, December 11, 1999.
the Railroads." (Part I)
II) - (Part
III) - (Part
fires underwater jet engine." -
Firefighting - from Pursuit
LIBRARY BOOKS & NEWS AVAILABLE ONLINE
Laying Last Rail, Promontory, Utah, May 10, 1869 (detail
of A. J. Russell Stereograph #540)
Click on a small red box or State name to see a large 1915 map of
more to see!
VISIT THE EXHIBITS that show the Central Pacific
Railroad as it was during the 1860's:
Articles to Read, Biography,
List, 19th Century Books &
Recent Transcontinental Railroad Books In Print,
Videotapes, and Games
Hopkins Railroad Library
Catalog - Pacific Railroad, Stanford University, 1896
Details of all CPRR locomotives,
including those shipped by sea
Chinese Railroad Workers
Catalogs listing all the railroad stereographs;
Index to CPRR images at The Bancroft Library
— California Heritage Collection
to CPRR images at Stanford University — Online Archive of California &
A.A. Hart Stanford Album
Interactive Railroad Project — Elementary Education Computer
Also see our Frequently Asked Questions,
Notes, User Agreement, and Help
us to Expand this Website!
to visit the
other websites for viewing and collecting
"All of us live better than John D.
Rockefeller" —Warren Buffett
perspective – that you won't
get on the nightly
IT'S GETTING BETTER ALL THE TIME
is accelerating worldwide. Real
incomes have tripled since 1950, globally. The
filth from horses polluting 19th century cities is
mining is obsolete; there
is more old-growth forest in California today than there was
in 1850; forest
lands are increasing (New Hampshire: 50% → 86% in a century)
because efficient farming needs less land (and factories
etc. no longer burn wood as fuel; with net
carbon now by America) while
global food prices declined 75% in 50 years, the
cost of meals fell from 19% → 8% of income from 1959
to 2000 ("a
century ago, Americans spent 43%
of their incomes on food and 14% on clothing; by 2002,
those shares were 13% and 4%"),
are 3 inches taller than in 1900; the
belching smoke stacks have all but disappeared and the air is
dramatically and increasingly cleaner (over
the last half century, air pollution emissions have declined
by 3% annually relative to output; since the 1970's:
ozone & particulates ↓31%, sulfur dioxides ↓71%,
carbon monoxide ↓75%,
nitrogen dioxide ↓41%, lead ↓98%,
& dioxin ↓90%; in
the past decade secondhand smoke exposure ↓75%); productivity
is soaring (↑25x since 1776)
because of innovations such
as the transcontinental railroad and the internet (since
WW II U.S. railroad freight hauling has doubled with productivity
up 1,200%; a
innovations doubled retail productivity compared to competitors,
saves customers 15-25% on food purchases,
accounted for over half of increased U.S. productivity,
1995-99, and is doing
more to alleviate third world poverty than any other organization);
due to growing
Economic Freedom, the World
Bank reports (2004) that this is "the most prosperous year
in human history" with 4% global growth; world
poverty (<$1.08/day) is rapidly decreasing (65% → 20%
in a century), and the
U.S. poverty rate halved since 1960 and the
poor are able to vastly outspend their supposed income,
the U.S. with the fastest-growing growth rate of major developed
countries, household net wealth increased to now reach a record
a supply side march toward freedom, on average halved tax rates
in the United States, a policy copied by almost every other nation,
resulting in 43 million additional U.S. jobs and $30 trillion
wealth creation; more wealth has been created in the United States
the last quarter-century than in the previous 200 years; energy
is not in short supply because new
knowledge and methods make energy and "limited" natural
resources ever cheaper and ever more plentiful (i.e.,
in the past 30 years US personal income has risen 8x, twice as
fast as gasoline
oil actually saved
the whales by making
it uneconomic by
1860 to continue slaughtering them
for the whale
oil used for illumination and to lubricate locomotives;
reserves are nearly at a record high); nuclear
energy can supply
needed electricity, as it does for 20%
in U.S., 76% in France;
global literacy ↑52%→81% from 1950-1999; Americans
over 25 with college degrees up 7.7% → 25% from
1960 to 2000, employment
in U.S. managerial and specialized professional jobs nearly doubled
1983 to 2002, with total
U.S. employment 1970 → 2002, ↑75%; violent
crime declined dramatically with the murder rate halved
since 1980 (↓96%-98%
since the middle ages!); cures
for most of the diseases of poverty have long been available,
and longevity is rapidly
increasing with our dramatically improved environment (US: 49 → 77
years in a century, requiring
10% the income in 1999 to achieve the same life expectancy
as it took in 1870.) Welfare
reform has almost doubled the earnings of poor families. Even the eighth of Americans below the "poverty" line
now live as the "well off" did in earlier generations:
46% of "poor" Americans (2003) own their own homes,
76% have air conditioning,
own a car (with 30% owning two or more), 97% have color TV, 78%
a VCR or DVD, and 62% receive cable or satellite TV.
environmental protection is not
easy or intuitive and (since
a jungle became a "rain forest" and a swamp became
a "wetland") wasteful, scientifically
illiterate "environmentalism", litigation, intimidation,
conclusions, overconfidence, misleading
and incompetent reporting, scare
stories, or propaganda is neither
nice nor benign, being instead a "deadly
prejudice" that puts
people in jeopardy – for
child dies needlessly every thirty seconds from malaria because irrational
fear of insecticides prevents mosquito abatement; ("About
half of all humans who have ever lived have died from malaria;" 50
million have died unnecessarily;
million die annually; killing one out of every 20 sub-Saharan Africa children
of 5); this could be easily prevented.
starved in a famine while nations refused UN donated corn
in 2002 because of misguided hatred of bioengineered
all crops & farm animals are genetically modified).
• Debunking "An
Astounding Fantasy" – Climate
variation is natural;
the concept of "global temperature" is meaningless.
Policy Resources: NCPA, Cato
vs. Reality, Junk
Science, Economics, Pessimism, America, Politics,
Crichton's speech on Environmentalism
MODERN BOOKS ABOUT THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD
the Transcontinental Rails: Overland Travel on the Pacific Railroad 1865-1881
Edited by Bruce C. Cooper, with content from
An anthology of Nineteenth century first person
accounts of overland travel on the Pacific railroad between 1865 and
1881 with fourteen sections
of which can easily be read in one sitting. Also includes 93 period engravings
and other illustrations, eleven maps,
and another sixty pages of appendicies.
The Classic Western American Railroad Routes
Bruce C. Cooper, Editor, 2010
A Study of Cape Horn Construction on the Central Pacific Railroad, 1865-1866
by Jack E. Duncan, 2005
Governor: The Life and Legacy of Leland Stanford by
Norman E. Tutorow.
the Central Pacific Rail Road of California–1863-1869"
Courtesy Norman E.
Tutorow and The
Arthur H. Clark Company. © 2004.
2-Volume Biography on one of the 19th Century's most Important Figures.
Table of Contents.
Book about Building the First Transcontinental Railroad:
Bain reports that "Empire Express was the main
"The definitive story of the heroism and heartbreak that
produced a railroad, changed the landscape of the country, and altered the horizon
of the nation." —The Wall Street Journal
selection of the Book of the Month Club."
||CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD ACROSS
1868 & 1997: Photographic
—Then and Now NEVADA RR PHOTO
||#1 - New York Times
Best Sellers List
Author Stephen Ambrose's book [EXCERPT]
LIKE IT IN THE WORLD:
Men Who Built The Transcontinental Railroad 1863 - 1869"
the corrected paperback edition, not the hardcover first edition.
THE CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD'S LESSON FOR TODAY'S HEALTH CARE CRISIS
Belonging to the Railroad Company is a
large, airy and comfortable building,
located near the shops, where their men
are taken care of when sick or disabled.
It is well conducted, a credit to the company,
and of incalculable benefit to those
unfortunates who are obliged to seek its
shelter. The company grounds cover
15 acres ..." —Crofutt's Guide, 1872.
"Be careful about reading health books. You may die of a misprint." —Mark Twain
health insurance premiums rising so much faster than workers'
Central Pacific Railroad Hospital (photo, left) directly provided health care
to its workers for 50¢/month starting in 1868, and
the monthly cost was still exactly the same in 1948! In
contrast, health care costs are spiraling out of control (↑1,000x!) today
because – ignoring the "first do no harm" principle – the federal government made a mess out of financial incentives when it eliminated market-based health care
and made American healthcare consist of playing
with other people’s
controls during World War II that were promptly circumvented with
benefits" paid for by reduced salaries, causing take-home pay to be stagnant. This has resulted
in the current unworkable system – driven
by politics –
of bureaucratic "third
of health care costs
by balkanized insurance companies or the government, with endless regulations
and paperwork causing a huge
and that hides the true costs from patients
and prevents them from expressing
and so defeats the market
forces needed for health care providers to be able to provide health care according to patients' actual
choices & needs, i.e., Wanna
Fix Health Care? Stop Hiding the Cost! The out
of control cost increases also result in large numbers of people
uninsured (which is worsened because insurance is further overpriced, by as much as 600%,
due to costly government-mandated coverages, and out-of-control
malpractice litigation), and leads to a quarter of all bankruptcies.
This also produces "job
lock" (preventing people from changing jobs
to avoid losing their health plan). Patients paying directly for
their health care ("first
see the expense directly and won't allow costs to rise out of control
has NOT happened with un-reimbursed cosmetic and LASIK vision correction surgery prices).
experience (the world's first multi-location HMO) shows that with direct employer provided ("second
health care, costs can also be stable over long time periods (for eighty years at $6/year!), because
the costs are not hidden. However when insurance
meddling makes medical care not provided directly by the employer
appear almost free to patients (low co-payments and deductibles
"consumers pay just 14 cents on every health dollar spent"),
escalates rapidly and the
bill for such a plan with hidden indirect costs, as
expected, rises uncontrollably,
health care is denied by rationing
under inferior socialized
socialized medicine in England, only about 50% of women with breast
cancer and men with prostate cancer survive, but in
or HMO type plans with either draconian rules or unconscionable
delays (in 2004, Canadians waited 11.3 million weeks for delayed treatment; with half waiting more than 17.7 weeks for treatment),
which result in life-threatening shortages and are
so complex and dysfunctional that, for example, the
U.S. Government's Medicare Hotline could only answer a billing or policy
of the time. (By analogy, buying your own meals, or – like
the CPRR medical plan – buying
a pre-paid monthly meal plan at the company
cafeteria is workable, but meal cards entitling
you to unlimited "free" – or
"almost free" – meals
at any restaurants of your choice will be completely unaffordable
– i.e., "there's
no such thing as a free lunch.") Recognizing this,
patient empowering portable Health
Savings Accounts have
recently been enacted into U.S. law in an attempt to reintroduce
care, as affordable consumer
driven health care (even for "high-cost" patients),
where patients get to keep
the health care dollars that they decide not to waste, while retaining
low cost major medical insurance
"Consumers then can make the treatment choices that are right for them without the third party disconnect that divorces the consumer from costs."
Policy Resources: NCPA, Cato
Progress, CPRR Hospital Report, 1883, CPRR Hospital Statement, 1883, The Old CPRR Hospital, Central
Pacific Railroad Hospital, What
Ails Health Care,
Solution to Health Care Reform.
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