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From Trail to Rail
A History of the Southern Pacific Company

Southern Pacific Bulletin, monthly installments, 1926-1928
































A BULLETIN feature which will undoubtedly be of interest to all officers and employes of the Company will start in next month's issue with the first installment of a history dealing with the early beginnings of the present Southern Pacific Company. Starting with the first foolhardy plans of idle dreamers for the building of a railroad to the Pacific Coast, the history tells how the Big Four – Stanford, Huntington, Hopkins and Crocker – became interested in Theo. D. Judah's proposition for thrusting a line of iron rails across the high Sierra; and how the courage, sound judgment and foresight of these Sacramento merchants overcame almost impossible engineering and financial difficulties to give the Pacific Coast its first transcontinental railroad in May, 1869. Building of this line east from Sacramento to Promontory, Utah, was one of the West's greatest achievements. Labor was scarce because of the goldfield rush; capital hesitated to invest in such a hazardous project; and all equipment, rails and most of the supplies had to be shipped by sailing vessel around Cape Horn. In carving through the granite mountains and advancing the rails over the high, snow covered Sierra, the pioneer railroad builders had to depend on Chinese coolies working with one-horse dump carts, wheel barrows, pick, shovel and black powder instead of dynamite, steam shovels, huge scrapers, rail-laying machines and the other power devices common to present day construction. Many of these events are related in the history by veterans now retired on pension. The material was gathered by the Bureau of News.

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[The following OCR text is included to allow indexing.]
History of the Building of the Company I s Lines
Will Start in the November Bulletin
... This advance announcement is made particularly so that those interested in making a file of the Bulletins containing the historical articles will not miss saving the first installment in the November issue.
train brought many compliments from the old timers. You sure want to give 'Sbep' some 'commends for the way be's handling this old equipment, Kid P. C. Vallejo, veteran brakeman, told Superintendent G. E. Gaylord.
Conductor George Day, who heads the seniority list on San Joaquin Division, got a big hand when he went through the train lighting the little oil lamps just before the long Newhall tunnel was reached. It has been about thirty years since lamp lighting was one of his regular chores. It took 81/2 minutes to go through the tunnel on the initial trip fifty years ago, but on the trip the other day the little train was in the semi-darkness only 31/2 minutes. Shep had Fireman Steve Fayle cut down going through the tunnel so there was no smoke in the coaches. The heavy work was left to the pusher engine with Engineer Grimstead and Fireman De Jarnett.
Just beyond the long tunnel, the pusher engine was cut off and No. 38
railroad between San Francisco and Los Angeles, said Mr. Crocker, was not the beginning nor the end of the activity of the four men, Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins and Crocker, who built it. First, they built from Sacramento to Promontory Point, and,
This line of

after the line was built from San Francisco to Los Angeles, they extended it to New Orleans and then b. built from San Francisco north to meet their line from Portland. r Cryer of Los Angeles paid to the two, queen cities of the West-San Francisco and Los Angeles. No story is more interesting nor more intricate, he said. The story of building the first railroad will be read and re-read long after we are gone. The men who built it are entitled to our highest respect and esteem. They were men motivated by the spirit of the West. Mayor Rolph of San Francisco paid a glowing tribute to the pioneer railroad builders, whom he named individually, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, Leland Stanford and D. D. Colton, and said that the gathering at Lang was an im Page Five log conductor on the first train into .4 Angeles after the celebration in 7 16, was one of those making the 1) on the special in 1926. Jack left lifornia in 1886 and went to rail(ling for the Pennsylvania, and is W a pensioner of that company. r lives in Indianapolis and made the 11) west especially for the celebra IL I'his celebration has been the bigt event in Jack's life, Natt Furit said on the way up to Lang. rinan is himself an old timer and s one of the first erators of the iiipany at Comrcial Street stait* Jack was his est while in Los iigeles. Jack has hardly it able to sleep cat because of e excitement, tt said. I went his room about 00 this morning il he was wide - ake. I told him %%,- a s late and *11ybe we had ssed the train. Q Was out of bed it jiffy, but, on cond thought, ld, 'Oh, the train ouldn't leave Ithout the conctor.' He saw to 4 that we were at W, station well beInre the leaving Jovie at 9 o'clock. Johnny Bassett, ho was a brake fall on the special Itaiii that went out .)( Los Angeles to he celebration fty years before, rtit up and down c aisle showing foople the little les he used when ighing mail on the train in the rly days. J. T. Whedon, who was one of the roe regular conductors running beand Los Angeles after opened, was another old special. The other two iductors at that time were Jerry tig and Johnny Webber. W. N. Monroe entertained a group listeners. He was superintendent construction on the original line nd laid the track from Los Angeles tJiang through the Newhall tunnel. I was in charge of the track-laying 4ww at Lang, he said, when the utick-layers reached us from the On the dayof the celebration, ._*e had a track-laying race of 1500 ket, while the excursionists from Los - Aligreles and San Francisco looked AM Mr. Monroe was too modest to iay which crew won; probably it was j dead heat. Mrs. Hattie Stamps, of Hollywood, *ho is from a family of railroad terans, went through the train towing a picture of Jack Riley and -tober, 19Z6 .4 SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN several other early-day railroaders taken fifty years ago. She also had a copy of the original invitation extended Geo. R. Furman by E. E. Hewitt, then superintendent for the Company, to attend the Lang celebration. J. H. Maag displayed an interesting old timetable published the day after the line was opened in 1876. Engineer F. Shepardson, senior engineman on the San Joaquin Division, was on the head end in charge of old No. 38, and the way he handled the rolled the special along into Lang, where it was greeted by the several hundred visitors already on the scene. Following the spike-driving ceremony, President A. S. Bent of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, acted as master of ceremonies and called on several speakers, whose voices carried to the big crowd through a radio loud speaker. In introducing the speakers, Mr' Bent said that, if we are to fulfill the vision of the pioneers, we must all work shoulder to shoulder. Mr. Crocker was then introduced, and said that he was glad, indeed, to be present at the gathering, and that the occasion filled him with the deepest emotion, because. of the fact that it was his father who, fifty years ago, had driven the spike which had linked the rails from the two main cities of California. This line of railroad between San Francisco and Los Angeles, said Mr. Crocker, was not the beginning nor the end of the activity of the four men, Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins and Crocker, who built it. First, they built from Sacramento to Promontory Point, and, after the line was built from San Francisco to Los Angeles, they extended it to New Orleans and then built from San Francisco north to meet their line from Portland. You would have thought that these brave men would have felt they had done enough, after building to the East and then to Los Angeles, said Mr. Crocker. But, no! Their steady purpose held to keep on and on, building up this western country and tying it to the East with links of steel. Mayor Cryer of Los Angeles paid tribute to the two queen cities of the West-San Francisco and Los Angeles. No story is more interesting nor more intricate, he said. The story of building the first railroad will be read and re-read long after we are gone. The men who built it are entitled to our highest respect and esteem. They were men motivated by the spirit of the West. Mayor Rolph of San Francisco paid a glowing tribute to the pioneer railroad builders, whom he named individually, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, Leland Stanford and D . D. Colton, and said that the gathering at Lang was an im History of the Building of the Company's Lines Will Start in the November Bulletin A BULLETIN feature which will undoubtedly be of interest to all officers and employes of the Company will start in next month's issue with the first installment of a history dealing with the early beginnings of the present Southern Pacific Company. Starting with the first foolhardy plans of idle dreamers for the building of a railroad to the Pacific Coast, the history tells how the Big Four -Stan, ford, Huntington, Hopkins and Crocker-became interested in Theo. D * Judah's proposition for thrusting a line of iron rails across the high Sierra; and bow the courage, sound judgment and foresight of these Sacramento merchants overcame almost impossible engineering and financial difficulties to give the Pacific Coast its first transcontinental railroad in May, 1869. Building of this line east from Sacramento to Promontory, Utah, was one of the West's greatest achievements. Labor was scarce because of the goldfield rush; capital hesitated to invest in such a hazardous project; and all equipment, rails and most of the supplies had to be shipped by sailing vessel around Cape-Horn. In carving through the granite mountains and advancing the rails over the high, snow covered Sierra, the pioneer railroad builders had to depend on Chinese coolies working with one-horse dump carts, wheel barrows, pick, shovel and black powder instead of dynamite, steam shovels, huge scrapers, rail-laying machines and the other power devices common to present day construction. Many of these events are related in the history by veterans now retired on pension. The material was gathered by the Bureau of News. This advance announcement is made particularly so that those interested in making a file of the Bulletins containing the historical articles will not miss saving the first installment in the November issue. train brought many compliments from the old timers. You sure want to give 'Shep' some 'commends for the way he's handling this old equipment, Kid P. C. Vallejo, veteran brakeman, told Superintendent G. E. Gaylord. Conductor George Day, who heads the seniority list on San Joaquin Division, got a big hand when he went through the train lighting the little oil lamps just before the long Newhall tunnel was reached. It has been about thirty years since lamp lighting was -one of his regular chores. It took 81/2 minutes to go through the tunnel on the initial trip fifty years ago, but on the trip the other day the little train was in the semi-darkness only 31/2 minutes. Shep had Fireman Steve Fayle cut down going through the tunnel so there was no smoke in the coaches. The heavy work was left to the pusher engine with Engineer Grimstead and Fireman De Jarnett. Just beyond the long tunnel, the pusher engine was cut off and No. 38 Page Five _~s PV.TIIEgN PACUIC n addition 'to an 1 res Y -un in f 'r the big, cling o trie Kails** celebration he was rnet at the , I Ces -ji'Am of - entertainrn6jjt,',.th(~ y eIVer&I_zVaer4nswh6 ~Ar6r ed with him b.ck,in the X~S when the'first line was, openedinto that -,,, I to iijht--~Johnriy P. Bassett~ conductor- John Sullivan, engineer- P C 'Kid , `g-~Electric'baiid played -_ ~_`ll I f~ Ifte -s an ~,~xce, 0 con- cert. ollowing pee ack--Kiley, conductoi;J.,H. Maag, brernan on,constructicin; Johnny Webber, .1itzger-ald.-engineer still inactive service. .'Chas~ Cooke, director of the.c.elebration for f ch-mak t e rear lo &plated sf thc~ Corrilmer d' jh ?:rhe _,,,`~resented'to~~ r.'.Cro&e~ 4~1 elief ifi-th6 future of Califorhia'and .._.'.Yehir,',-was - donated Coast 'And the Writ of 11 k j -tAnj the Pacifi6 e . n9wn jeweler-bf ~o~ 191, Comp n' ~d' btor~ R V_-D or as guided the ince~'h lines were built., --,He er pioneer Ut t t pan'y's -belief Bi h 'd ~~inted , ha the Con' s op an e utu-;~,--'h`-, in th f -t6-~ of t e ' W derhonArated I- b' y '-the-*,' .'~Ploukhed back ~ into- 'the prop their, jm.piovern6nt ..~ ~jkd ~~,bett Ah -, C e-,earnings; qf -1- ~ c,~ -.O.Tpan modest retu' t6th -`t .71. e - 5, oc this spirit, -iiaid Mr.~ '~ ,Southeiln_,~,-_Pacifie _~~-n-i'anagem Ica i N~ing ~Qu at - 18 greater- than'- - I a any, -'the 11ries -jwere -,,,We are going ahead,--havtfig'_~ faith in you -44,d with -The , os nge 9s ~merce:handled arrangement*~ celebration. Chas.. 'Cooke'-as dir. _t ~.-close' cooperation b Com any and the e p :c-ific organization-.joe Romero;~-pion ngeles,-'.-did himself ~.qualit~-d the bakbee _J;lenty for~-e,~6` yb6d - , -~ lz~ -,-- 7, zky.qDear-,;.ot,,xhe clistricti- which 4,1 nks' lia cial'traii onductoi nry1C, I eran pa~ n Divisi( ~cial tol I n additi, ned, 'amo itors, vetera were: obert 1~ and g( Chain' d and N) o super n engin( ductor; 149'; - C, n ~€ed io C. Mach derick - s of JolW. Fahi as. Croli. Watsorl dire Neeiation 1 c AIN. O ortant his' ---,tr I Cott( Irb gibi 100,0( ~k-a6 I t7~~ e sur os dblis nernIly d bit of it nw** re con for asi, hat 0irs, tion I.V11 Ili* boing sbwk hat It,. ly log* lie shareg t lillils ir a114 1111111111y r %ifft, liff. exceii n tills t cte oil (d oil ifm Coln is not t evell expert in Ity d. d hy it ctiollb cl.aifli 010 ent, .0 ,6~77, SOUTHE N PAL r I r I C BULLETIN CHAPTER 1. In the. Beginning. to pioneer That is the omparly of oday. This system is the main unit of a organization whose operations extend from the Pacific to the Atlantic; from Portland, Oregon' to ew York; an organization which operates 16,262 miles of rail and about 8,825 miles of water lines; is owned n 57,300 stockholders and 103,500 men and women. lines with a mileage of mprise all the lines of ,this organization west of Ogden, Utah; ~Tucumcari, N. M., and El Paso, ,.Texas; and south of Portland, Ore~-Xon. They operate in and serve the states of Oregon, California, Nevada, tah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The story of the early beginnings f this system is the story of the st; the tale of a glorious battle by a little group of brave men unknown odds; the record of victory earned through wise planing and untiring willingness to carry n. In this victory the entire West ared, because the result, gained 60 ago under conditions which toregarded by most men was the building of a eat gency for the development of empire it opened to the world. The system as it stands today was utlined in its essentials by the buildrs of the first unit. In the contruction of that unit-the western nd of the first transcontinental rail ad-the builders undertook a work hich was pronounced impossible by e majority of those best equipped y wealth or training to aid in its acomplishment.' These pioneer builders took to the A a lifetime of training in the fundamentals of business, integrity which rved as the basis for large credit hen material collateral was exhaust a courage which rendered them ious to opposition and ridicule NOTE I-D. 0. Mills testified: The difficul very great and rendered their credit r. it was a, constant struggle and of the community as well as my own a against their being able to carry out the terprise. Fac. R. R. Com. p, 3490, pvtmber, rvA .4 and blind to what many would have recognized as failure. The country opened up by their efforts, rich as it is today, was then a wilderness-unpeopled and remotewith its future promise visible only to the eye of hope. Not only was the West a little known land, but everything that was known of the country through which a railroad line must traverse to reach the West was of a nature to discourage such a venture. This mid-country was practically uninhabited; much of it was known to be desert land. Such humans as were encountered in this unexplored stretch were Indians- wild Indians as they were classified in those days-who had already manifested cruel resentment of any intrusion by the white population. It was known also that the line of The Cover Picture THIS month we have a picture for the cover that was taken back in the days when the present lines of the Southern Pacific were in the making. The picture shows work under way in filling the Secret Town trestle where a large force of Chinese laborers were kept busy during the sum, mer of 1877 making the fill across the can, yon to replace the hastily constructed trestle. The trestle was 1100 feet long and 90 feet high and was constructed over the divide between the American River and Bear River when the original lines of the Central Pacific were being extended over this section of the Sierra Nevada Moun, tains during the spring of 1865. The picture shows in a striking manner the meager construction implements with which the builders of pioneer railroad un, dertook the herculean task of grading a roadbed and laying iron rails across the granite-walled, snow-peaked Sierra. Wheel, barrows, one,horse dump carts, picks, shovels and giant powder were the tools of the Chinese laborers. Joseph M. Graham, then resident engi, neer at Colfax, was in direct charge of work in making the fill, under direction of Chief Engineer Samuel S. Montague. Mr. Gra, ham is now a resident of Berkeley, Cal. The Octure is a copy from an original A. A. Hart stereoscopic view and was borrowed from the collection of Chas. B. Turrill of San Francisco. any transcontinental railroad must cross two chains of mountains popularly regarded as impassable barriers. Mountain roads so steep that wagons had to be lowered down them by ropes were still fresh in the memory of the emigrants who had come west over the plains by the covered wagon route. Mountain construction is still an undertaking of great difficulty. In those days, to carry any road through rocky territory was literally a matter of hand-carving. Moreover, the knowledge of traction was still limited. Only a few years had passed since It was generally believed, even by engineers, that to attempt to drive a locomotive up hill was a defiance of the laws of gravity which must end only in disaster! With the entire West agreed on the need for transportation facilities which would bring within more convenient reach the East-which was home then to all Westerners of American birth-few could be found willing to risk fortune and reputation on anything so improbable of accomplishment as the construction of a transcontinental railroad. California had only recently become part of the United States. The discovery of gold had attracted the attention of the nation to the isolation as well as to the wealth of this western world, so that in West and East sentiment favored the construction of a transcontinental railroad as something necessary to bind the continent together. It was also recognized that, while ¥ transcontinental railroad would cost ¥ great deal of money, it would also mean a big saving to the government. As travel over the plains increased, the demand for government protection from the Indians became more insistent. Forts were established at in NOTE 2-Eight months after Win. Norris, a young locomotive builder of Philadelphia who built the locomotive Washington in 1836, had demonstrated that a locomotive could not only climb an ascending grade by its own power but could also haul a train up, A. G. Steere of the Erie Railway in a Ion comrnu nication to the Railroad Journal ofMay 11, 1837, proved by elaborate algebraic formula that the Washington did not climb the hill because it could not and that no other locomo tive ever could climb an ascending gr1de by its own power. Mr. Steere was very nice about his exposure of Mr. Norris' alleged deeds done in open violation of the laws of gravita lo- tion. When Railroads Were New, p. 129. Page Three tervals as frequent as possible and ~hplzovernment was put to an everincreasing expense for manning and indintaiiiing these.isolated outposts. Tlie., annual expenditurei,in time.;of peace, under ordinary circumstances for government transportation to the Patific,coast was estimated in 1862 at'nearly seven and.one-half million dollars. The Quartermaster-Gene~ral reported, the cost to the government of transporting military stores w-es't--ward across the plains for the year ending. une 30, 1865, as $6,388,856.' I A~-report to the United States Senate.in 1869 -showed that the Indian w,4is for 37 -years prior to. that, date cost.,the United States twenty thou7 sand lives and $750,000,000, or about $20,000,000 annually. During the years 1864 and 1865 the Quartermaster's Department of the army alone spent $28,574,228 for military supplies against.the. Indians.' In the first seven years after completion of the railroad the government saved in transportation charges alone nearly $48,000,000.5 The suggestion, however, that the government should undertake the construction of a, railroad as a national enterprise met with determined opposition in Congress. This opposition was a reflection of public opinion based on unsatisfactory experience ,with government in business up to that time. Also the United States then was far from being a financial power among the nations and was not in a position to assume any undertaking the cost of which was so impossible of calculation as was railroad construction sixtyyears ago. CHAPTER II. First American Railroads. Although the practicability of railroads had been demonstrated in some quarters before the project of a transcontinental road had made much headway, general acceptance of the idea proceeded slowly. Many. railroad projects had been started'in the East. Most of them had failed while still 4n,infancy. Investment in railroad stocks before'. the days of transcontinental.railroads was regarded as a gamble. New inventions were not accepted as readily then as they are now. An example is the steam engine in its application to railroads. For twentyseven years before the charter for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was drafted, the Philadelphia Water Works had been operated by a wooden boiler, supplying-steam at two and a half pounds pressure, to an engine built chiefly of wood,with a large copper cylinder. I Here was a crude but long continued and successful demonstration of the dependability of.steam, yet the directors of the Baltimore & Ohio, after their road had been partly built, were . still in doubt as to the most suitable motive power. They experimented with horses, sails, and a horsedriven motor--the horse being carried on one of the cars on a sort of tread NOTE 3- Congressional Globe, April 1862. NOTE 4-40th Congress 3rd. session, Sen. Com. 290. TZ 5-Pac, Ry. Com. F. 2596. Page Fou _.S0UT1-1EP_N PACIFIC ULLFTIN Chinese laborers working with dump carts on a heavy fill during construcfion of the Company's line over the Sierra Nevada mountains. The picture was taken during 18by before the line was through to Colfax in September that year. enlightenment in a study of the eiidr American railroad field, which cotne ': prised nine miles of gravity road it Mauch Chunk and three mileq of horse road at the granite quarries Quincy. A committee of engineo was then sent to England to stutly Stephenson's Manchester & Liverp-1 Railway. This committee made a port April 5, 1828, and constructiow began August 11 of that year. CHAPTER III. Schemes To Span The C Less than one hundred mil road had been built in States when th an Ann Arbor, published on F torial advocati railroad from the Great Lak s Pacific Ocean. This was the first voice rais demand for a transcontine I ntal _11 ,It was the opening note in a campai which in 1862 resulted in the passa of the Pacific Railroad Act. In 1836, John , Plumbe a 14 - miner who had ' gained some experience as superintendent of -a ra road between Richmond and Pete burg, called a meeting at his home,~~ Dubuque,, Iowa ' to discuss private, the building of a railroad to the cific Ocean. As a result of t ing there was held, on Ma the first public convention the Pacific R sponse to re convention, ~funds for the survey of from Milwaukee to Dubu Two years later Plumbi_~uaeled_ gress for another appropriation to tend the survey farther West, but'~ was, too far ahead of his time, Congress refused to act. Plumb receive public recognitionj h Nov mill-before Peter Cooper devised a steam locomotive which would negotiate sharp curves. The charter of the first railroad in merica was drafted less than one hundred years ago'. This was fiftysix years after Watt had perfected the steam engine, and forty years after the Legislature of Pennsylvania had ignored the request of Oliver Adams for a patent on a steam wagon, with the statement that his plan was the hallucination of a disordered mind. The first railroad in the United States was completed at Quincy, Mass., in 1826. It was used to carry granite to tide-water, and was operated entirely by horses. The Baltimore & Ohio was the first passenger . railroad in the United States. Construction was started in 1829. The plan of building this road was received with favor and the first issue of stock was subscribed three times over by Baltimore people during the twelve days it was on sale. The projectors, however, who had made their estimates without any real knowledge of construction costs, aimed far below the necessary mark, and there was much financial maneuvering before the railroad was completed. The Baltimore peole, had courage This pioneer road, which,cosi $31,000,000 before the rails reached the Ohio River, was begun when the entire wealth of the City of Baltimore was less than $25,000,000. The first act of the directors was to send out a committee to get some ,definite idea as to what a railroad really was. The committee found little NOTE 6~This charter drawn by J. V. L. McMahon, 27-year-old lawyer. the first eVer drawn in America, was so skilfully framed that it has served as a model for evel ~imilar document drawn since then. , When ailroads Were New, p. 38. e CtOrig regon R abodiedidea that tates w 'Itich tradf Whitne life and pntinent; some con ,gineers lid in 1~ ttempts ,assed, 1 oject. d devol small d sl a! h A stu( ait an a R in annoi fily life kind. In thi, he spew .1845 wit 0emen') Iralles of Missouri Whitn .29th an( build to rpose e We: ay be thE was ia, wa, tc *as bul peric sence et ti ount _Uon, it small As f; ttracti isons n, a re 1: ce shel alifor es f, bot su imat( k. thei imal ~'Tw s h Vemb Original Project-or of the Great gon Railroad, and his plan was odied in the first of the National ific Railroad Acts, passed in 1862. hen came Asa Whitney, a New merchant, who had returned the Orient in 1840 filled with the that a railroad across the United tes would give to America the trade of the Orient. hitney devoted ten years of his and all his f ortune to his transtinental railroad project. He made e converts, but failed to convince ineers that his plan was practical, in 1850, after three unsuccessful rnpts by Whitney to get bills ed, Congress finally killed his ect. Whitney gave up the fight, devoted his latter days to running all dairy in Washington, D. C. r. Hartwell Carver of Rochester, .1 son of Jonathan Carver, the ous traveler, was in the field ost as early as the Ann Arbor edi with a plan for a Pacific Railroad. F. Degrand also had a plan. study of these plans will show railroad engineering was practi y an unknown quantity to their ors. hitney's ideas may be gathered oin a pamphlet entitled, A Project r a Railroad to the Pacific, pub ied in New York in 1849, in which announces his intention to devote life to the work which I believe mises so much good to all man (1.1y In this pamphlet Whitney tells how spent the spring and summer of 5 with a company of young gennien exploring and examining 800 Iles of route and 1500 miles of the Issouri River and other streams. No Faith in West Whitney memorialized the 28th, rith and 30tb Congress for a charter build a railroad from Lake Michin to the Pacific Ocean. Whitney's 'pose was not so much to develop West as to provide a new highy between the Oriental markets d the eastern states and Europe. e was not enthusiastic about Cali_rnia, to which his principal objecn was that the mountains were so se to the Pacific Ocean that there s but small space left, and, owing periodical droughts in that climate, sence of means to irrigate, and the et that there was but a small ount of land suitable to cultiva n, it was capable of sustaining but Amall population. As far north as San Francisco, he lared, the land was poor. He ad itted that the discovery of gold was eting thousands. He said: Gold ns both the minds and morals of n, and leads a man to devote even ore labor to dig from the earth six tice of gold than would produce a ' kishel of wheat. The population of Illifornia must depend -on other coun Ties for food, and certainly we can t supply their wants, because the Imate through which we must pass them would injure and destroy all imal and vegetable produce. Two years will wind up the scene, s his summary dismissal of Cali vember, 1926 OUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIM - fornia's mining activity, and from then on California will have to import labor from Europe to raise enough to eat, will have nothing to sell, and nothing with which to buy. Whitney, who planned to build the Pacific Railroad as a personal venture, asked Congress for a sixty-mile wide strip of land from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean, for which he agreed to pay at the rate of ten cents an acre. John Plumbe publicly resented Whitney's picture of California and, in the name of the settlers and miners of the city and county of Sacramento under date of February, 1851, submitted to Congress a memorial against Whitney's entire scheme. Whitney, in his memorial, suggested the Columbia River as the proper terminus of a trancontinental railroad, because of the impossibility of crossing the Sierra farther south. Plumbe took exception to this with the declaration that the undersigned will take the liberty of stating, with the utmost deference to the high authority to the contrary, that he himself completed the reconnaissance of a route from the Missouri River to San Francisco, which demonstrates beyond all doubt that the Sierra Nevada can be crossed by a gradient not exceeding 40 ft. per mile, whilst with a comparatively short tunnel a dead level might be preserved. This would indicate that Plumbe's knowledge of the Sierra was as inadequate as Whitney's knowledge of California. Public exchanges of argument and opinion were intensely personal in those days. To Whitney's California criticisms Plumbe had this to say: As to the disparaging remarks relative to the resources and general character of California, it is sufficient here to say that this is but a reflection on the writer's own ignorance. But it appears that the nearest view that this gentleman himself enjoyed of California was from Council Bluffs on the east and Canton on the west, and -this fact satisfactorily accounts for his unfortunate misapprehension of the real attributes of our noble state and her golden Sierra. Railroad King He concludes with the statement that Mr. Whitney's bill would give California not a railroad but a railroad king. Back of this interchange was probably some personal feeling, because in 1847 Plumbe had written to Whitney suggesting that a convention be called to consider all the projects for a Pacific railroad, and to work out one practical plan. Whitney's confidence in his own plan was as supreme as his plan was impractical. He replied to Plumbe: You speak of my project and others which you say are before Congress, but I have never even troubled myself to examine them, believing them all to have been founded upon mine, and have given them no further thought than that they would find their proper level. I have carefully read over your prospectus, and must say I am so dumb I cannot even make a plan of it at all. My course of duty is onward and alone. I fear no opposition-I fear no comparison. Plumbe was an optimist. In discussing his alleged practical route over the Sierra he said he had been really disappointed in finding that, instead -of the expected difficulties, Nature had not only provided an easy pass, but had studded it with mountains so rich in mineral that the hitherto dreaded barrier was in reality a storehouse from which the grading of the road would extract enough treasure to pay for the work. Plumbe's ideas of the benefits that would result from the construction of the transcontinental railroad, while given serious consideration in those 04C With the commf of the-iron horse the stage coaches, which have been immortalized in Western romance, ally o P were gradu rc _d into the discard as a means of transportation. Tnis picture was taken at Hangtown (now Placerville) during the late 'bo's. The stage coaches are taking passengers from the terminal of California*s first railroad, the Sacramento Valley Railroad now a part of Southern Pacific, on the last lap of the trip over the mountains to Virginia City. Page Five days, would offer poor inducement'to the investors of 1925. .. Our present attempts to Christianize the heathen are but a drop in the ocean, declared Plumbe, compared With the effects which would follow the construction of the road. He declared that the Pacific Railroad Would give the East tea of better quality, by getting it more quickly to the con~ sumer, that it would facilitate the protection of the whites from fhe Indians, and would make it possible to play checkers by telegraph. After Whitney came Josiah Perham, of Boston, who was endowed with the belief that li~ had a divine mission to aid in building the Pacific railroad. Perham had failed in business and was about to start for California during the gold excitement of 1849 when his attention was directed to a panorama of Niagara Falls-, the St. Lawrence and the Saguenay. Perham arranged to have the panorama, :the Seven-Mile Mirror as he called it, get up in Boston. He then arranged cheap excursions from the country towns- roundabout to see the panorama. People in the country jumped at this chance for a visit.to the city at small cost and Perham's scheme was a big success both for him and the railroads. This was the beginning of the cheap excursion business. The railroads appreciated its value and did everything they could to help. Perham extended his activities throughout New England and Canada and in 1850 was credited with bringing more than 200,000 excursionists into Boston. It was the fortune made in this business which he devoted to spreading the gospel of the Pacific railroad. People's Pacific Road Perham's plan, which was perfected ,in 1853, was. to collect a million subscriptions of one hundred dollars each from he general.public. The Peo-ple's- Pacific Railroad was incorporated in ~Main%-March 20, 1860., Con'o6ss took -its time about actingi and the.- People's Pacific -,Ralflroad Bill, fi ly passed, did not go through until after the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific had been launched. I The bill was signed -by President Lincoln July 2, 1864. This road became the forerunner I of the Northern, ,Pacific, b t Perham died, a poor:man, u before' construction began.,~' :--Dr..Hartwell Carver, who in 1847 mAde~public proclamation that he was,,, the ~ original-, projector of -the transcontinental Irlailioad, -asked Congress at that time for a charter to build a 'railroad-, from some, point on Lake Michigan to the banks of the Columbia River, with a branch, to the Bay of San Francisco. He asked that the government donateenough land for the widthof the road, with the free use of stone, timbet, iron ore and coal, and sell the builders 8,000,000 acres of public land located anywhere. the buyer - might select, within thirty miles of the railroad. The price of this land was to be $1.25 an acre and the govenment was to accept in payment for it stock 'Of the company at par. Page Six SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN LELAND STANFORD This picture of the first president of the Central Pacific Railroad, parent organization of the Southern Pacific Company,was taken in 1873. I He also asked for the company the exclusive privilege of maintaining telegraph service between the East and the Pacific Coast. He planned to build a track of 8 or 10 feet gauge, and undertook to complete the work in fifteen years. As an alternative proposition, he agreed to build the, road for twenty miles of land on each side of the track. Dr. Carver, like the other authors of plans for a transcontinental railroad, was an engineer in theory only. In his memorial to Congress he took that body into his confldence as to some of the details oi:his enterprise. . To secure comfort for the traveler, he~plarmed to make the cars double the width of his .8- or 10-foot track, and to lay,the rails on thin~felt, for the purpose of taking up the vibration. This padding, the. doctor informed Congress, would make possiMe- 9. ,speed of fifty or sixty miles an 'hour,: and the cars will run still and -`quiet. , The: cars. with which he purposed to equip this toad were to be floating palaces, 16 feet wide and 100 feet long, with.stiterooms and -berth for sleeping, spleridid and welfturnished saloons, dining halls and kitchens for cooking, ac6mmodating in each car 200 passengers or more, and almost as., quiet repose as they would enjoy at home in their own parlors. Dr. Carver also had a plan for over-. coming grades. He was going to have holes drilled in the rails tdreceive the cogs of wheels, which can be so arranged as to . let down when it becomes necessary to ascend a grade over 100 feet to the mile- By this plan, the doctor said, trains could be induced to climb over the highest mountains. He concluded his memorial-tlo C gress with, the statement that the terurise would bring about. a kind earthly millennium, and bethe meof uniting. the whole world in 0 great church, a part of whose will he to praise I God and.b Oregon,, Railroad. - Dr. Carver had rather as to how he would rais sary money,in the event th ,given the charter. He is the New York Express of D~ceinlij~ 17, 1845, as saying that, if Gong granted his request, he would im diately go ~ to China, which to be waking un, and would e to inspire them, with a s activity and enterprise which induce them to take large amo stock. I I Earned Free Pass All that Dr. Carver got for out of his life-long work was pass over the Pacific railroad. was given, to him in 1869, after had made his dream a reality. P. P. F. Degrand proposed to bija Pacific railroad by the pig lever of national credit. His P posal was for a railroad from ', Louis to San Francisco. It wait plan to sell stock -sufficient to 11 $2,000,000. Raisinz this sum w(A give them the right to bo, rt $98,000,000 from the government 69o', to-be repaid $2,000,000 per after the completion of the road He also asked for a strip oi ten miles wide on the north the road, and the land for th the road, and for depots, right to take from the publi wood, gravel, stone- iron, etc. sary to construct ae road. pressed the belief that the road covu be finished under his plan n years. Degrand shared the popular lack faith in government ownership, no, evidenced by the concluding graph in his memorial, in w says, If the railroad to.,Sa cisco is un'dertaken-as a publ. we are warned by the fate of' tem of permanent fortificatio the great resurrection gun, before its completion. ' .Degrand's plan was not given ous consideration by Congress. were other, plans, such as-the G Wilkes' scheme, which struction of. the Pacific government, with - the. Treasury- as its bariker 'United States Sen ad a p an, ' not for-,a' a plinl old English have been accustomed our, on which the farmer,Xna tra horses or on, foot, without fea without tax, with -none to. run him or make_'him. jump-,.out o way. , (coitinued Next,Mo I nth) NOTE 7- Proceedings of th6.1rknd Railroad to San- Francisco':!~ at 'theii~~ meeting held at - the U.; S_ HoteL, in'f April 19i 1849,,inicludedl~,an sddress.'.,, Vpli of the United-Stites shd*ihg~that, oDegtand's plan is the, only e,on~ -,as y posed which will secure promptly:4-n a and by,a single act of legislation .'co-pswi of a ra Iroad to California in the ~sh&t allowed by its. physical obstaclts~!' Stanford Library ves sir thi be alte: zed th ing ds ii ,-~etizinl ashion 01) ai i e oJ t 9 an in The stes ~'&Ppetit _~,,Aertaki fit I a: d( at, 0( ta gether, .,,,tar fro prox to say h ge. ta ME p C s taui ny r pply ssar he n Fi rtlai ple sup ssa -oke per nts pear t is abor, of their entire co and s men trans ce as a 1905, yard n 1906 When ;eville, Ir am 1 09 1 yard - te fol yard - aster, rans 1912. inted to all fol Mi - oast, 11 iS eri I i - ger,~~ AR 1,; dul c iln - teo, new oras ain, er allth v Oil go, the n I ich A ve at rn. t(; IF res 0 f To. I J I ~r - I n . to t(I r ~d t n' P ( a a tl SOUTHEPIN PACIFIC BULLETIN CHAPTER IV. Plans For Pacific Railroad Take Form-Theodore Judah. N addition to investigating these private plans, and perhaps to aid it in considering them, Congress in 1853 directed Secretary of War Jefferson Davis to ascertain the most practical and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Davis sent out five columns of army engineers, whose report fills twelve large volumes with narrative, pictures and maps. The routes they surveyed have since been approximated by the lines of the Northern Pacific, Santa Fe, Southern Pacific and Union Pacific from Council Bluffs to the mountains. The army reports indicated that the southern routes could be constructed ill less time and for less money than the northern routes, which, oil account pf grades an(] snow, were regarded as impracticable. But for the Civil War, it is not unlikely that the first railroad to the Pacific Coast would have been through the southern states. The war, while adding immeasurably to the difficulty of financing the project, influenced the selection of the northern route and was a large factor in hastening the passage in 1862 of a Pacific Railroad Bill, which included in the Goverrancrit aid, liberal grants of public lands. It was Theodore Dehone Judah, a young engineer who came to California in 1854 as chief engineer for the Sacramento Valley Railroad, which had been organized to build a road from Sacramento to Folsom, whose concentrated enthusiasm gave definite direction to the steps which led to breaking ground for the Centra! Pacific Railroad at Sacramento in 1863. Judah was born in 1826 at Bridgeport, Conn., and was educated at the Renssaeler Polytechnic Institute at Troy, New York. Judah's early ambition had been to enter the United States navy, but he was unable to secure an appointment to Annapolis. He turned his energies to civil engineering and with notable success. He was resident engineer of the Connecticut River Railroad; surveyed and built the railroad from Niagara Falls December, r926 to Lewiston, and served as engineer on the Erie Canal and on the Rochester and Niagara Falls Railroad. Armed with this-in those daysunusual railroad experience, Judah came West in 1854 to the Sacramento Valley Railroad, the construction of part of which he supervised. Goes to Congress In the fall of 1856 he went East to raise funds to extend the Sacramento Valley Railroad from Marysville to San Francisco. He attended three sessions of Congress, endeavoring to procure the passage of a bill making grants of land to aid in the construction of railroads in California. It was in this way that Judah gained the knowledge of legislative methods which led to his selection, in 1859, to represent in Washington the California Railroad Convention, in'an effort to get another bill through Congress, and which enabled him still later to render material help in securing the passage of the Pacific Railroad Bill. The railroad convention, which was held in San Francisco October 11, 1859, at Assembly Hall, Kearny and Post streets, was called by the California State Legislature to consider the refusal of Congress to take effective measures to secure construction of a railroad from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The California Legislature had been active in its efforts to help secure rail transportation across the continent. In 1850 the Legislature passed a resolution urging on Congress the im Trail to Rail Is Story of Company's Beginning THE Trail to Rail article now running in the Bulletin is the only authentic and complete record ever published of the build, ing of the old Central Pacific line from Sac, ramento to Promontory Point, Utah, which line is now a part of Southern Pacific. Building the western link of the first transcontinental railroad was one of the greatest achievements of the West and will undoubtedly be followed with close inter, est by employes in all branches of the service. The present article will not go into the history of the Southern Pacific Company as an entire organization in any great detail. portance of authorizing the construction of a national railroad from the Pacific Ocean to the Missouri or Mississippi River. In 1852 the Legislature adopted a resolution instructing the California delegation in Washington to vote for a national railroad to the Pacific Coast. A Railroad Convention was held in San Francisco October 4 and 5, 1853, and in 1853, 1854, and 1857 the Legislature, by resolution, urged Congress to act. In 1854 the California Legislature appointed a committee of six to collect information regarding the proposed routes for the Pacific Railroad, and in 1855 the legislature urged the national government to establish military and post roads across the plains between the Atlantic states and Calif ornia. Judah was a tireless worker, and the report of his activities in Washington as the representative of the Convention is the report of a big job well done. His efforts were not crowned with success, however, until nearly two years later.' Judah went East by the Panama route, and had for his fellow passengers Congressman J. C. Burch, who recently had been elected one of California's delegation to the House of Representatives, and General J. H. Lane, United States senator from Oregon. Judah made good use of the long hours of travel, and by the time they reached Washington both Burch and Lane knew as much about the Pacific Railroad project as Judah could tell them, and were nearly as enthusiastic as the engineer himself. During the trip, the trio prepared a bill, which, when they reached New York, Judah had printed. He sent a copy with an explanatory circular to all the principal newspapers and to prominent individuals who were directly and indirectly interested in the transcontinental project. He interviewed influential men in Boston and New York, had a long talk with President Buchanan, and secured his approval of California's effort to secure railroad communication with the East. NOTE 9--Painplilet published by Judah, Sacramento, Nov. 1, 1860 (In State Library, Sacramento). Page Seven Finding the House occupied with the election of a speaker, he writes: I decided to make a tour through the West, and endeavor to awaken as much interest as possible in our efforts. Before the organization of Congress I accordingly visited New York, Albany, Syracuse, Buffalo, Cleveland, Columbus, Chicago, and Cincinnati, being Absent about one month, and itrrived in Washington again January 14, 1860, since which time I have been constantly engaged in endeavoring to further the passage of the 'Pacific Railroad Bill'. Back in Washington, he undertook the education of Congress in the matter of the Pacific Railroad. He sent a copy of his bill to each member of both Houses, and to every prominent newspaper in the country. He interviewed the speaker of the House and acquainted him with California's plan. When the committee had been ap-f pointed, to which the Pacific Railroad legislation would be referred, Judah saw to it that every member had a full supply of Pacific Railroad literature and a copy of the bill Judah had prepared. Slavery Was Issue Unfortunately for his efforts, the question of the abolition of slavery had now become acute, and the national legislators had no time to discuss railroad bills. The measure of the California Convention was postponed until the following session of Congress. I am sustained, wrote Judah at this time, by the views of many in-telligent gentlemen of experience, in the opinion that, with proper exertion, there is little doubt of the passage of the bill at the short session. Judah had left no stone unturned to interest Washington in his project. Through Congressman Burch, Judah was given a room in the Capitol on the same floor with the halls of the House and the Senate. There he established a general headquarters for the Pacific Railroad. As he says: I procured all the maps, reports, surveys and papers of every kind to be found on the subject, and, it being so convenient to the halls, many of the senators and members were accustomed to drop in daily. You may be assured that no opportunity was lost to further our views and impress on them the importance in which the subject is held in California. Judah also reported that he had collected reliable information with regard to the operation of locomotive engines on heavy grades-highly important in view of the problem that had to be solved in crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains-and establishing the fact that grades of as high as 350 feet per mile could be overcome and operated with safety. Judah returned to California satisfied that the Pacific Railroad bill could be passed and that the most important thing for him to do, and that without delay, was to find a pass for the road through the Sierra. He was convinced that such a pass existed and many -of those who had supported Page Eight . SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIa THEODORE D. &DAH First chief engineer of the entral Pacific who visioned the railroad over the Sierra but did not live to see his dream come true. He was only 37 years old when he died in 1863 from Panama fever. the bill in Washington had accepted his faith as sufficient assurance. His inability to make a definite declaration, however, that a pass of specified grades had been found, had caused a number of congressmen to withhold their support. He had no money to pay for surveys. San Francisco men who had helped pay his expenses in Washington refused to contribute any more to a venture that seemed so hopeless of fulfillment * Judah undertook some explorations for wagon road routes for the Sacramento Railroad. At the same time, Daniel W. Strong, of Dutch Flat, was out in the mountains seeking a road over which some of the emigrant travel could be diverted so that it would pass through Dutch Flat. Strong discovered what he thought was a place where a railroad could go through the Sierra. He knew that Judah had been searching for a pass over the mountains farther north than the thirty-second parallel. He wrote to Judah, telling him of his discovery and inviting him to come up to Dutch Flat and take a look at what he believed was a gateway through the rocky range. Judah responded promptly, and, with Strong's aid, enough money was raised in Dutch Flat to pay the cost of an investigation by Judah. He returned to Dutch Flat in August, 1860, with the announcement that he had found a practical line for the railroad across the Sierra Nevada Mountains on the crest of a continuous divide from the Sacramento Valley to the summit. This line, he announced, was shorter and more direct than the one indicated by government engineers, and bad maximum grades of 100 feet to the mile. Judah immediately prepared articles of association for the California Central Railroad, and, on November 1, 1860, issued a circular detailing his discovery of the pass and invitinsubscriptions to a company which lic had organized for the purpose of constructing a road through the state upon this route, in anticipation of tlie passage of this bill; to procure the recognition of this as the line of tbe Pacific Railroad through California; to procure the appropriations appertaining to this end of the route , and to construct the road under this organization. Seeks Finances He pointed out that the California law required that, in organizing a railroad company, $1000 per mile must be subscribed and 10 per cent. paid in. He continued: The estimated length of the road to the state line is 115 miles, requiring a subscription of $115,000, on which 10 per cent or $11,500 is required to be paid in. It is proposed to make with this 10 per cent a thorough, practical railroad survey, establishing the grades, cuttings, an(I fillings, and to make the necessary maps, profiles, estimates, report,~, etc. He announced that he had in tll(. towns of Dutch Flat, Illinoistown, Grass Valley, and Nevada received a bona fide subscription of $46,500, leaving about $70,000 subscriptioii (requiring payment of $7,000) to 1w made up in the cities of San Fran cisco and Sacramento.' o He promised that his plan, to makc this the western end of the Pacific Railroad, would receive the support of the California delegation in Congres,,~ and that Congressional leaders other men of influence in Washington were in full sympathy with his airn~i. This pamphlet was sent to t1w newspapers of San Francisco and Sacramento and to men of means in both cities. Judah followed it Ul) with personal visits. In San Francisco he found no encouragement. Daniel Strong, who worked wid) Judah in this first effort to raiso money, testified in 1887 before tlie Pacific Railroad Commission that only two men bought stock in San Francisco, and that they were both resident!i of Grass Valley. Judah's dream failed to attract men who were getting 21/2 to 3Y2 per cent a month interest on their money in the regular course of business. Hi,,t project offered no profits at all until the road was built, and that woul(l take years. When the profits di,l come, there was no likelihood that they would be anything like the lle~_ turns to which western investors were accustomed. Furthermore, if the ven NOTE 10- I went to San Francisco and 11W people there laughed at the idea. There W~1,~ only two men in this city-and they belonge,1 t Grass Valley (Col. Raymond and Jud~-, alsh) stopping then at what was called t1i, Tehama House, who said that they wo I'l take 25 shares apiece. (Pac. Ry. Co. p. 2840. Testimony D. IV. Strong.) NOTE 11-Leland Stanford before Pac. Ry. Com. p. 2617. December, r926 J 4 ture failed, prises had, t law which r for their pro liabilities. San Franci Judah we through new; ings, sought plan. It w, drama that t' entrance. James W. jeweler, and to Leland Sti chant of tha Judah had tains a pas; could be bui gineer had t porary orga, ford if he A story, and, 1 in the proje, Stanford first talk o friend, Colli ber of the h ton & Hopk Huntingtc night at 1 were subs( brought in ton's partne Crocker. J his story, done with Huntingt( ing to pay vey. Hew( he said, un such a sur agreed, and ahead, with the actual be as repr( be organizE Huntingt i Charles Cr, pioneer gr( tory as tb rare team. a success joining wit Sierra. E. which mad the miraclE Judah's er life. Huntin genius; B money Hu its wise E ried out a~ represente~ the quarte handling 1; work done Althoug~. men, the f our, at tl lation, cot part of th a railroac brought t than mon perience. and integ NOTE 12 December i~, L~_ ~- SOUTREP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN ture failed, as many similar enterprises had, there was the California law which made stockholders liable for their proportion of the company's liabilities. San Francisco said No. Judah went to Sacramento and, through newspapers and public meetings, sought to interest capital in his plan. It was at this stage of the drama that the Big Four made their entrance. James W. Bailey, a Sacramento jeweler, and a friend of Judah's, went to Leland Stanford, a prosperous rnerchant of that town, and told hin-i that Judah had discovered in the mountains a pass over which a railroad could be built. He told what the engineer had (lone in the way of temporary organization, and asked Stanford if he would see Judah, hear his story, an([, perhaps, put some money in the project.'2 Stanford asked Bailey to let him first talk over the matter with his friend, Collis P. Huntington, a member of the hardware firm of Huntington & Hopkins. Huntington and Stanford met that night at Stanford's home. There were subsequent meetings. They brought in Mark Hopkins, Huntington's partner, and their friend, Charles Crocker. Judah was invited to tell his story, which lie seems to have (lone with convincing effect. Huntin 'gton said lie would be willing to pay his share of a proper survey. He would promise nothing more, he said, until he knew the results of such a survey. To this the others a.-reed, and Judah was directed to go ahead, with the understanding that if the actual conditions were found to be as represented, a company would be organized to build the railroad. CHAPTER V. The Big Four. Huntington, Hopkins, Stanford, and Charles Crocker made up that strong pioneer group famous in western history as the Big Four. It was a rare team. Each member had made a success of his own business before , ining with the others to conquer the 10 Sierra. Each had developed qualities which made him a necessary part of the miracle-working organization that Judah's enthusiasm had fanned into life. Huntington was the financial genius; Hopkins took care of the money Huntington raised and guided its wise expenditure; Stanford carried out administrative policies, which represented the combined wisdom of the quartet; Crocker, with a gift for handling large forces of men, got the work done. Although all successful business men, the combined resources of the four, at the most extravagent calculation, could have been but a small part of the great sum needed to build a railroad across the Sierra. They brought to the job, however, more than money, more than business experience. They brought character and integrity. Their reputation for 12-U. S. Pac. R. R. Coin. p. 3774. .December, r926 common sense suffered, in the estimation of many of their friends, when they risked their fortunes in the Central Pacific, but their given word was accepted at face value even by their critics. Men who had no faith in the success of the Central Pacific advanced large sums of money on the personal guarantee of the Big Four. To estimate the debt the world owes these pioneer builders, it is necessary to understand the sacrifices they made to carry out this work. It's true that their ultimate reward was great, but not unduly so when it is considered what their railroad enterprise did for the West and for the generations that followed them. Furthermore, the fortunes they made were used, as long as they controlled them, in developing, extending and improving the transportation machinery of the great empire they had opened to the world. And they carried on until hatted by death. It shoul.-i lie rrmernbered also that the opportunity they grasped had been offered to practically every man of means in California before it came their way. After they began work, they offered to share their opportunity with any that would share the financial burden and the responsibility. The project was regarded with such distrust by financiers that even to buy shares in it before it was built was injurious to a man's credit. The builders put into the work the best years of their lives, their entire forturies, and all they could borrow. In the days when the Central Pacific was launched, men of middle age, particularly if they had been successful, thought more of retiring than of seeking new worlds to conquer. The associates were in this class. Judging by the standards of 1860, each had made his fortune and all had reached the age when custom counted it proper for men of their years to take it easy. Mark Hopkins, the oldest of the quartet, was 49; Huntington 41; Crocker 40; and Stanford 37. Instead of taking it easy, however, these men tackled what was then the biggest job in the world, and made a success of it. From that job they went to others. Death found each of the Big Four still in harness. Despite the saying that a prophet is not without honor except in his own country, all the appreciation of what these four men accomplished has not been left to this generation. Here is what a writer had to say about them in 1873, four years after the last spike had been driven in the transcontinental road: The projectors of the Central Pacific Railroad completed it, and today control and manage it; they did not let it slip out of their fingers; and, what is more, although only merchants, totally inexperienced in railroad building and railroad managing, they did their work so well that, in the opinion of the best engineers, their road is today one of the most thoroughly built and equipped and best-managed in the United States. Their bonds sell in Europe but little if any below United States Government bonds, and their credit as a company, in London, Frankfort, and Paris, is as high as that of the Government itself. Moreover, you are to remember that these Sacramento merchants who undertook to build a railroad through 800 miles of an almost uninhabited country, over mountains and across an alkali desert, were totally unknown to the great money world; that their When western railroading was young and California railroads could be figured within a couple of hundred miles, San Jose was the southernmost terminus of the state. This picture shows the railroad yard at that point in 1864 shortly after the line of the San Francisco-San Jose railroad was completed on January ib that year. D. C. Bailey was freight agent then. The first building at the right is the roundhouse, the building just beyond is the ticket office, and the one at the right is a hotel that was burned that year. There were no oil- burning locomotives in those days and the man in the foreground is sawing wood in lengths suitable for locomotive fuel. The picture was sent the Bulletin by D. C. Bailey, son ofthe pioneer freight agent, who is an engineer on Stockton Division, located at Tracy. Page Nine - SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN Railhead in June, 1865, when the Central Pacific line was being built through Dixie Cut near Gold Run station about 6o miles from Sacramento. roject was pronounced impracticable y engineers of reputation testifying before legislative committees; that it was opposed and ridiculed at every step by the moneyed men of San Francisco; that even in their own neighborhood they were thought sure to fail; and the 'Dutch Flat Swindle,' as their project was called, was caricatured, written down in pamphlets, abused in newspapers, spoken against by politicians, denounced by capitalists, and for a long time held in such ill repute that it was more than a banker's character for prudence was -worth to connect himself with it, even by subscribing for its stock. There have been many conflicting reports as to the actual wealth of the associates at the time they organized the Central Pacific. The best light on this comes from Collis P. Huntington himself. In testifying before the Pacific Railroad Commission in 1887, he said that the firm of Huntington & Hopkins in 1862 owned property valued between $500,000 and $600,000, and that their credit rating in their own business was probably about one million dollars. He also-testified that Governor Stanford was worth up in the hundred thousand several times and Crocker more than $200,000, and doing a thrifty business. 'a The combined fortunes of the associates would have been a very small part of the money needed for an undertaking like the construction of a railroad across the Sierra. It should NOTE 13-In discussing his relations with those associated with him in business, Collis P. Huntington said: That is the right way to ,do business in my opinion. I have been doing business over fifty years. My theory is the old theory, 'Trust all in all Or trust not at all,' as the poetry says, and I have always acted on that. Mark Hopkins has handled hundreds of millions of dollars that he and I were interested in together and I never asked him to show me a fi gure. Testimony Collis P. Huntington. U. S. R2ilway Commission. P. 36. be remembered, moreover, that their entire fortunes were not available for this purpose. Most of the capital 'of each of the associates was already invested in a going business so that there was available for investment in an outside venture like this only the surplus, the total amount of which we can only guess at. Huntington also told how the associates came together. In a general way, he testified, I believe that every member of the company came in at my personal solicitation. I spent many evenings until a late hour after getting through my regular business in going to see men. I went to see only those who were thrifty, and those I believed to be safe business men. He said that he wanted Governor Stanford in because he was a good business man and a clean man in all respects. Of Charles Crocker he said: He was doing a thrifty business and I counted him one of the best business men in California. One of the first things Huntington and his associates did after arranging for the survey of the route for the railroad was to investigate the causes of failure in other railroad enterprises. They found that in very few cases the men who started ventures of this kind had been able to hang on until the road was built. Their investigation showed them that improvident and extravagant management in the beginning was responsible for many of the failures. They found that many of these enterprises had been swamped by interest charges long before there was any offsetting revenue from operation. It was with these warnings before them that the Big Four plotted a course of close economy and arranged their financial deals so that interest payments were postponed as far into the future as possible. It was because of this little research work, done before any obliga tions had been incurred, that the associates insisted on having written into the Pacific Railroad Bill conditions whereby the Government pai( all interest on bonds advanced untii the bonds themselves matured. Here is an illustration of their practical economy: After organizing th( Central Pacific, one of the company's engineers brought in plans for a new building. How much will it cost? Hunting ton inquired. Very fine, He was told $12,000. he said, for by and by. For th present we are not doing much busi_ ness. This will be better. He then chalked an outline on one of the iron doors at 54 K Street, where Huntington & Hopkins' hardware store was located. The building thus outlined was put up in t-( days, cost $150, and served as tho company's headquarters for some time. When the business outgrew tho office, the first headquarters were turned into a paint shop. (To Be Continued) GOOD PROGRESS IS MADE BY FORMS COMMITTEE Good results are being accomplished by the Stationery Forms Committee, according to a report made by Chairman F. L. McCaffery on November 12. Up to that date 875 forms had been discontinued and 212 revised, a total of 1087 forms, or about 40 per cent of those considered. Of these, 649 were local, standard, and common standard forms, and 438 were unauthorized processes forms or temporary forms that were considered unnecessary. On the other hand, 578 unnumbered and temporary forms stood the test and were adopted for permanent use and given form numbers. More than 100 local forms havi! been adopted by system lines as conimon standard or standard. Results obtained by the committee during the first year of its work have been gratifying, says Mr. McCaffery, and are in a large measure due to the assistance and cooperation given by users of the forms that received attention. I wish to express my appreciation of all that has been done to aid in the important work we are engaged in and ask your continued interest in ihe work, that further reduction in number of stationery forms, may result. Several very good suggestions were received by the committee following, the request for such suggestions mad~e in the October Bulletin. WHAT YOUR JOB IS WORTH If your job pays you $100 per month, it's worth $20,000. That amount of money invested at 6 per cent, not a low rate by any means, would pay you no more than these wages. If you draw down $125 a month, it's equal to a $25,000 investment. A man with a capital of $50,000 is regarded as pretty well off even in this day and age, but even that amount wouldn't return him a cent more than $250 a month.-Ex. Ogden DECEMBE store fo. perintenApproximately tributed -on De of the Christm will go a long the wives and mas. This is split by the ell The Club w~ tenance of Wa by Arthur D. right of way ship of six. and,in 1924,1 who divided , 1925 there A $4817.70, and members to di Not only di excellent mea, bers are per] sums which i compulsory f, non-payment members fron posits as is voluntary r( Christmas sa' Every new trance fee of members are No member three shares $2 for each pay day or and other mo not paid wit matically b( interest for though the d Following loans and a weeks' peril counting froi $ 2.00 or I 2.01 to 5.01 to 10.01 to 20.01 to 3001 to 4~.01 to 50.01 to 60.01 to 70.01 to 80.01 to 90.01 to All mone~ period that on applicati entire men share basis, cording to Interest due each p same condil Loans ar. ever funds of priority not be mad the estim shares held they be in rent book ficient sect judgment 4 sirable. Member,, son before SOUTHF-P-N PACIFIC 13ULLETII-~0), Mli Fil ~t6 i4~tonvl Z V~ (Continued frona last month) 0NE of the strongest elements in the quartet's success was the absolute faith the partners had in each other. When Huntington went East to raise money he carried with him the unlimited plower of attorney of each of his associates. At one time, when money was unusually hard to get, Huntington telegraphed from New York for a sheaf of blank notes endorsed by all the associates. This demand at first scandalized the cautious Hopkins, but finally, not a sheaf perhaps, but a number of blanks with the requested endorsements were forwarded to Huntington. There is probably nothing in business today quite like the confidence which characterized the dealings of these pioneer builders. Many contracts for construction, covering miles of road and involving millions of dollars were merely verbal agreements. There is no record that there was ever any dispute when it came to settlement. Fiction has, perhaps, a few combinations comparable to this quartet, but in business never before and never since have there been four men who entered into a compact and played the game all for one and one for all as the Big Four did. The late William Hood, former chief engineer of the Southern Pacific, who entered the service in 1867 and worked under the direction of the Four as long as they lived, prompted by what he considered unfair criticism of the associates, had this to say about them: No College Careers They were all born at a time when colleges were small in attendance; and none of the associates had the advantages (or otherwise) of college teachings, which is true of numerous other great men, including Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and Abraham Lincoln. They came to California at the time when the discovery of gold caused an immigration of the world's most enterprising and able young men, amongst whom they were eminent for ability and would have attracted instant attention in any gathering of men of attainments. Each one of the four associates had special adaptations, and the work that each gave attention to was correspondingly apportioned. Mr. Charles January, jgz7 Crocker was cheerful and forceful and had a personality that caused all employes from heads of departments to Chinese coolies to do their best and work with an interest as if the property and enterprise were their own; and, at the same time, Mr. Crocker was never an obvious driver or taskmaster, and held the almost affectionate regard of all his subordinates. In business matters and circles it was universally understood that the word of the associates was as good as their bond, and it was well known that they countenanced nothing other than scrupulous fairness to laborers and to all who had just claims upon them. So complete was the confidence of all employes in their integrity, that there were instances when the company was hard pressed for money, for interest and other maturing obligations, when notice was sent out Is There Person Living Who Began Railroad Work Before 1847? THE Bulletin would like to learn if there is any person living who started railroad work before Joseph M. Graham, now a resi, dent of Berkeley, Cal. Mr. Graham is 85 years old and is in excellent health. When he was only six years old Mr. Gra, ham had a regular job carrying water to the men doing construction work on the Galena & Chicago Union Railway, the first railroad line out of Chicago. This was in 1847. His father was one of the engineers on the job. When not going to school he did work of one kind or another in connection with railroad construction. During construction of the Central Pacific, original line of the present Southern Pacific, he was for several years assistant engineer and resident engineer on the line over the Sierra, His acquaintance with S. S. Montague, chief engineer for the Central Pacific, brought him to the West and he started work for the Central Pacific in May, 1867, remain, I . ng with the Company until the middle of 1881. After that time he was connected with other western railroad companies. It's a long time back to 1847. Probably there is no person living in the United States who started railroad work before that date. If there is the editor of the Bulletin would like to have the name and address. over the railroad to that effect, and asking all employes to get along with pay postponerrient for a month, there was no murmuring or loss of confidence, but, on the contrary, the employes seemed to feel it a privilege to be able to help out. After succeeding in building the Central Pacific, instead of being financially wrecked as freely predicted, and as they themselves feared, the ambition seized the four associates to build a great system of railroads to develop the Pacific Coast, which was most fortunate for California, and this ambition was steadfastly held to, through extreme discouragements and risks. It is inevitable in such a case that a monopoly for a time of ownership of railroads was necessarily created, and the only way to prevent it was for the associates to stop building railroads, which was very far from the wish of the various parts of the state which needed railroad transportation. Advanced West California would have been many years longer without a complete railroad system if these associates had failed to devote their energies and risk their fortunes in railroad construction. The assumption that other railroads would have built to and through California if these associates had not done it has nothing to support it in view of the facts, which are that no railroads would have come to California until after the railroads' built by the associates had developed the state enough to make it worth their while to build without risk and get a share of the business developed by iiie pioneer railroad constructions. There are some interesting personal remembrances in San Francisco of these pioneer builders, which the fire of 1906 spared. In 1874, when the hard battle with the Sierra had been won, Stanford, Hopkins and Crocker built for themselves homes on that part of Califorilia Street, San Francisco, known as Nob Hill, near where, the Fairmont Hotel now -stands. The Stanford home was at the corrier of California and Powell streets and occupied the easterly half of the 11. block bounded by California, Powell, Pace Thirteen Pine, and Mason Streets. On the west half of the block, Mark Hopkins built his home. The Hopkins Art Institute, which was built there after the fire of 1906, has been replaced by a skyscraper apartment house. Across the street, on the site now occupied by Grace Cathedral, Charles Crocker bought the block bounded by California, Sacramento, Taylor, and Jones streets, and there built his home. On the same side of California Street, in what is now the children's playground known as Huntington Square, stood the white colonial mansion built D. C. Colton, which was afterwar~dy, the San Francisco home of Collis P. Huntington. Although the fire of'*1906 destroyed these homes, the stone walls which surrounded them remain. Around Grace Cathedral still stands the iron and granite wall built by Charles Crocker, conqueror of the Sierra. The boundary of Huntington Park, was Collis P. Huntington's fence. When Stanford started to build his home, the lot developed a habit of sliding down the steep Powell Street hill. A number of bulkheads were put in, but one after the other slid out, until Stanford, losing patience, announced that men who had made a railroad that stayed put on the steep sides of the Sierra should certainly be able to tame a city hill, no matter how steep. He turned the problem over to railroad engineers. They solved it by excavating a foundation for the bulkhead in such a way that, while the hill slanted from north to south, the foundation slanted .from south to north. The bulkhead has stayed there ever since because, before it can slide down the Powell Street hill, it must slide up the hill the railroad engineers built. This bulkhead, which extends around the entire block, is still in service and there is nothing more substantial in San Francisco. Built Cable Railroad It was to provide convenient transportation to this location that Stanford built the California Street Railroad. Crocker, Hopkins, and others joined in the application for a fran,hise, but practically everybody but Stanford dropped out before the road was built. Out of 5,000 shares, Stanford owned 4,750. Crocker took no part except to allow his name to be used in the application for the franchise, and Hopkins declined to invest on the ground that it would cost more money than they could possibly get back in five-cent pieces. It would probably pay a dividend, he said, at the same time as Hotel de Hopkins referring to his own residence theln under construction. Collis P. Huntington was born Octo ber 22, 1821, at Harwinton, Conn., and died August 13, 1900, outliving his three associates. Of his boyhood we know a little through the anecdotes he was fond of tellin . gr later in life. He was a born trader and seems to have realized from the beginning that t4e only way to build business was to give service. As a small boy, he was once engaged by a neighbor to cut cordwood. He riot only cut the wood, Page Fourteen - SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETDr MARK HOPKINS Treasurer of the Central Pacific and all allied accivi ties of the Big Four. He was the oldest of the four men, being 49 years old when the Central Pacific was organized, and was affectionately known as Uncle Mark. but stacked it neatly and then swept the yard. The neighbor was so pleased he gave Huntington an extra dollar and told him if he would come around next year he would let him cut the wood again. In telling the story afterwards, Huntington said his pleasure over the extra dollar was greatly dimmed by disgust at the idea that anybody should think that he would be doing odd jobs a year from that date. Huntington went into business at the age of 22 with an older brother at Oneonta, New York. He came to California in 1849, and, after a brief stay in San Francisco, where he made some money trading, he established himself in the hardware business at Sacramento. Huntington liked to tell the story of the first money he made in San Francisco. The same rules, based on common sense that enabled Huntington to manage the financial end of the vast undertakings that he and the others of the Big Four carried out, also governed his daily life and his own personal affairs. When he arrived in San Francisco in 1849 and was undecided as to where he would attempt to establish himself, he found that waiting while he made up his mind was a very expensive affair. The cheapest table board of endurable quality was very high, and Huntington, a very powerful young man, had no intention of reducing his capital by paying out living expenses. During the period of contemplation he found that stevedores were scarce and commanded big wages, so he got a job as a stevedore and, while working, kept eyes and ears alert for information and trading opportunities. One day a ship anchored in the bay that he learned was from Manila. As soon as he quit work he hired a boatman to row him to the ship. When he got on board he smelt potatoes, which he knew were very scarce in San Francisco. He found the captain of the ship, who was also the supercargo, or purser, or agent, was somewhat discouraged about his cargo, which consisted almost entirely of potatoes, which he feared would spoil before he could dispose of them. He was very glad to accept the cash offer from the young stevedore for the entire cargo, which Huntington sold at a very handsome profit. Huntington ascribed his good fortune to the fact that by taking a job he kept himself in close touch with what was going on and was enabled to get his information of the ship and its cargo. Before reaching San Francisco and while waiting on the Isthmus of Panama for a steamer to bring him to the Golden Gate, Huntington found very poor transportation for the people crossing the Isthmus. He selected a partner from among his fellow passengers,. organized a boat, canoe and pack train service across the Isthmus, and within a few weeks established a profitable business, which he was able to sell for a handsome figure by the time the steamer for San Francisco was ready to sail. While still seeking a field for his talents in California, Huntington discovered that many of the miners whom he visited in the mountains were hungry for pets. San Francisco at that time was pestered with too many cats. Huntington relieved San Francisco of a large number of its furry surplus, shipped them to the mountains, and sold the San Francisco pests to the miners for pets at pet prices. Stanford Was Governor Leland Stanford was elected governor of California in 1861 and served during 1862 and 1863. Two years was then the regular term. From the time of his election until his death, regardless of the office he held, he was addressed and spoken of by his friends as Governor Stanford. Even when he was United States senator from California he was still Governor to his friends in the West. He was born March 9, 1824, the fourth of a family of seven. His father, who was a farmer, was one of the builders of the Albany & Schenectady Railroad, which was built in 1829, was 15 miles long, and was one of the first railroads built in the United States. The little railroad played an important part in young Stanford's boyhood, but as a field for a career seems to have offered him no inducement at that time, for his 20th birthday found him studying law. He was admitted to the bar in 1845 and might have spent the rest of his life at Fort Washington, Wisconsin, where he started to practice, but for a fire in 1852 which destroyed his law library and most of his other property. Gold had been discovered in California and young America was going west in large numbers. Stanford emigrated to California in 1852 and went into business at Michigan Bluff in Placer County. He removed later to Sacramento, and 1856 finds him an V .6 acti ford ceri. mar fair S. gen( autl Fou Gov scri but crat mer min foul he 1 his cou: 41 just plo, taci and tun; que V tab] Fra it a A. and ger far ho-vi mal E a,~ get Sar he tior pos S 189 left ver mei Sta age C reci car pat roa of mei Fhe imy oth hea Crc w a., rec, bee gin mil one the Cer cac Ino da~ N soc W 0 (,'r( con I Cr( N 186 active member of the firm of Stanford Bros., dealers in- oils and groceries. He Was a.successfuI business man and a -power in the political, Affairs of the state. Stanford was looked upon by-the general public' as having the mos - t authority of any of the so-called 'Big Four. William Hood, who -knew Governor Stanford intimately, de scribed him as: reserved in manner, but always kindly,and wholly demo cratic. If a new employe in the Sacra mento office was engaged, even in a minor capacity, Mr. Stanford soon found occasion to meet him and say he was glad the company had secured his services, and otherwise spoke en couragingly to young men. Mr. Stanford had a keen sense of justice and impressed it on all employes with whom he came in contact. He was regarded with respect and almost affection by those fortunate enough to meet him frequently. When the commutation rate was established on the ferries between San Francisco and Oakland, Stanford fixed it at $3 a month, over the protest of A. N. Towne, general superintendent, and IF. ff. Goodman, general passenger agent, who declared the rate was far below cost. Stanford insisted, however, that the company wanted to make it easy for people to live in the East Bay district where they could get land for homes cheaper than in San Francisco. One way to do this, he said, was to make the transportation charge as nearly like carfare as possible. Stanford died at Palo Alto June 21, 1893, aged 69 yeaTs and 4 months. He left his fortune to' Stanford University, which he had founded as a memorial to his only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who died in 1884 at the age of 16 years. , Crocker-The Builder Charles Crocker, under whose direction the work of construction was carried out with such magnificent dispatch that the Central Pacific Railroad was com~leted seven years ahead of the time allowed by the government, is still remembered for his ,ift for cheerfulness. He had a rare g imparting his own enthusiasm -to others, which, made him the ideal head of a. great working force. Crocker's -job with the organization was to get things done, and - therecords he establish9d have ..neve-i been beaten. American army engineers in France in 1918 built 130 miles of railroad track in 100 days, or one and three-tenths miles per day; the builders of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific when racing to meet each other built 1100 miles in thirteen. months, an average of three-miles per day. William Hood, who was closely as~, sociated with Mr. Crocker in the work of construction, said that Crocker also had the gift of sound common sense in a marked degree. flood said: I never heard of Mr. Crocker reproving or speaking to. any NdTg 14-Report Chief-Enjincer C. F. K R., 1861. iranuary, r9z7 - SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN - one except in encouragement and in a manner to increase the man's selfrespect and instil a desire to continue in his good opinion. He was able to convince those orking under his direction that he believed they were doing their best, and they did it. Crocker, going among a large force -of men, so enthused them with his spirit that, when he went away, instead of the work slackening, it went on faster than ever. Crocker, like the other associates, was a successful merchant when he and the others organized the Central Pacific Railroad Company. He was a native -of.-Troy, New York, where he was~ born September 16, 1822. He was only ten years old when he began to earn the money with which a few years later he helped his father to purchase a farm in Indiana, to which state the family moved in 1836. Here, after helping for two years to clear and cultivate the land, he found employment in a saw-mill, and later in a forge. He worked there for $11 a month and board, and was allowed to attend the district school in the winter. He became a thorough and efficient workman and started a forge of his own, which he conducted with fair success. Crossed the Plains In 1850 he crossed the plains to California. Two years later, after some mining experience, he established what became the leading dry goods house in Sacramento. In 1860 hewas elected to the state legislature on the republican ticket. In 1862 he gave up politics.and the management of his business, everything, to devote his fortune, time and abilities to the Pacific Railroad enterprise. - He died at Monterey August 14, 1888. One of the men still alive who worked under Crocker in the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad paid him this tribute. Wherever Charley Crocker was engaged, labor and capital were -just like this -he il.~lustrated this by'locking both hands together= and,'.'Jie continued, it was some fist.ft Mark Hopkins,' Huntliliiit ner, treasurer of the Central Pacific. and of other allied activities of the Big F , our, was the oldest of the quartet. He was 49 years of ago when the Central Pacific was or ganized. , Hopkins, who came of Puritan stock, was born September 1, 1813, at Henderson, New York. His farnily moved in 1825 to St. Clair, Michigan. Hopkins' business career started when he was 16 as a clerk in a mercantile firm, first in Niagara County, New York, and afterwards at Lockport, where he became leading partner in the firm of Hopkins & Hughes. In 1837 he added to his commercial equipment by studying law. In 1849 he sold out and went to San Francisco, where he arrived August 5 of that year. A few months -later he opened a store at Placerville, taking his own goods there by an ox team from Sacramento. The year following he entered the wholesale grocery business with his friend and fellowpassenger, E. H. Miller, Jr., who was afterwards secretary of the Central Pacific Railroad Company. In 1855 he entered partnership with Collis,.P. Huntington at Sacramento and con-, tinued a member of that firm until his death in March, 1878. Every project in which the asso-' ciates embarked was submitted t6. Hopkins for his final approval. All the associates had implicit faith in his judgment. He is described by a contemporary as thoughtful, quiet man of rather slender build, who wore long, grey whiskers and mustache, and spoke with a slight lisp. His nephew, E. W. Hopkins, was his assistant. Hopkins Was Balance-Wheel Bancroft, in his History of Cali~ fornia, says: Hopkins' most marked traits. were less of the positive sort thanthose.of his associates, by ~whozn ~e is describe d as 'one of -the true*t. and-best men that ever lived,' an&asA~balance- wheel in the company. -11 :,po~OiAhought anything. finished until, on s--paFt , ',',H6bkins looked at it,' says the vice~ V: Truckee was-a mighty busy point during the time the first linesof the Central Pacific were being buili bvii , the Sierra. This picture of the yard and depot was takeri during 1868. page Fifteers Now . While still less costly than prunes and not half so expensive as butter, the price of locomotives has increased more than ten cents a pound since 1915. With prunes quoted at 19 cents and butter at 40 cents a pound, the Company last year paid an average price of 17.3 centsa pound for.,11,218,600 pounds of locomotive, as compared with an average cost of 7.09 cents a pound in 1915. Few people are aware of the fact that during ten years in which food stuffs prices advanced 46 per cent, the cost of locomotives advanced 140 per cent. The Pacific type locomotive that in 1925 cost $25,585 now costs approximately $75,000. Page Sixteen president (C. P. Huntington), which is praise enough. Hopkins disliked waste of any kind. It was his thrift that made the costly dollars of the construction days go as far as they did. His example and that of his associates are still paying dividends. A picture of Mark Hopkins walking through the shops at Sacramento picking up carelessly-dropped bolts and nuts may suggest to the unthinking a petty occupation, but it led to the establishment of a special department for the salvage and reclamation of worn and discarded materials and the care anti sale of all scrap. Each year more than one million dollars is saved through recovery of material by repairs and reclamation. (To be continiied next month) LOCOMOTIVE PRICES HAVE RISEN 10 CENTS PER POUND OUTIIEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN Hoover Praises Fine Work of Railroads Taken from annual report of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Cominerce. PROBABLY the most outstanding single industrial accomplish ment since the war has been the reorganization of our Ameri can railways. Our transportat;ion was not only demoralized bir Government operation during the war but had suf fered from chronic car shortages and insufficient service, not only after the war but for many years before. The annual loss from this periodic stran gulation in transportation was esti mated in the department's annual re port of 1925 to amount to hundreds of millions a year. The insufficiency of transportation interfered with steady industrial operations, created inter mittent employment, increased the costs of -production, and, through peri odic stran ' gulation, caused high prices to the consumer. Manufacturers and distributors were compelled to carry excessive inventories as a protective measure, thus not only increasing the amount of capital required in the business, but multiplying the danger of loss by price fluctuation. The railways, during the past five years, not only have built up adequate service and given a complete correction to these ills, but they have, by great ability of their managers, greatly reduced transportation costs. It is an interesting commentary upon Government operation that private enterprise has been able to operate the railways with far fewer employes and at the same time load almost 15 per cent more cars than the Government administration. In 1920, This photograph shows part of the office personnel of the Auditor of Passenger Accounts in July, 1901. Ed.,E. Holton was then auditor of that office, which was located in the old General Office building at 4th and To~ingerid Streets. The decorations are in observance of the Fourth of July. - Left to right-Thos. Branson. Chas: DeLand,, Wrn.-Fasset, W. Stevens. W. Parkinson, recentIA retired on pension; Geo. White, Jimmie the janitor; Ed. E. Holton. L. H. Fuller. A. G. Fisher, 0. F. Gi n. 8resent auditor of passenger Jo in accounts; A. L. Burgan. at present Earnin Clerk in the same office; hn umm is. Duke Hague, Geo. , an is Bosch d immie O'Donnell. the last year of Government operation, the total number of employes rose to 1,999,000 as compared with 11783 000 in 1925. Th~ result of this great reorganization upon the whole economic fabric of the country has been far-reaching. Rapid dispatch has greatly reduced the inventories of the country, has contributed to stabilization of production and employment, and has increased the efficiency of all production and distribution. One of the contributions to this success, and a fine example of cooperation between different industries and trades, has been the great service of the regional advisory boards created by the American Railway Association. These boards have been organized in practically every section of the country, and are representatives of all the shii)pers and receivers in each territory - farmers, manufacturers and distributors. Transportation needs have been analyzed and anticipated quarterly; car requirements are regularly estimated. The boards have also made studies of markets and market. methods in the promotion of more ing even distribution of commodities; they have contributed to the solution of railway problems of better loading and higher operating efficiency. Two years ago the Department of Commerce, in an exhaustive report on Pacific Coast perishables, laid down certain principles essential to more stable marketing and the elimination of the great wastes in marketing which were a burden upon both the producer and consumer. An extremely important experiment is now in progress in the development of cooperation in a wholly larger sense in an endeavor to cure the evils there pointed out. Under the leadership of the American Railway Association, a joint committee has been created embracing representatives of the growers, bankers, shippers, and railway executives and others having to do with the grape crop in California. The Department of Commerce, the Interstate Commerce Commission,and the Department of Agriculture are a-Ro cooperating with this committee. The object is to develop a control of the shipment and marketing of the annual crop of some 70,000 carloads of grapes to the end that more stable returns may be secured to the growers and great wastes eliminated in transportation and marketing. If this experiment can be developed to the degree hoped for, it will represent a new departure, not alone in transportation but in an enlarged service of cooperative marketing as well. it will give stability in the grape industry~an industry in which there is an . n estment of over $125,000,000 of capital aside from something over $100,000,000 of specialized equipment for transportation-and ise of a solution for handling other perishable crops throughout the country in a fashion enormously beneficial to the farm*er and consumer primarily, and. secondarily of value to the railwayg in more orderly transportation. laftuarY, r9Z7Wai Le ol w Legio tunitv Lotrio 1927, Paul 40 of th sence who, z to ma All the o under be co end t] may emplc ices c Lee grant to e Stean ana I Em pany, bers impol patiol pecte4 repre Secon fall. cific and r 'other the ci Th( veter; must Lezic 1926. a qui hers. injir s from Ro4 gradE estim way Th ;klnel that trip for i For I datio $450. bers FOO' I Co lille I the 84111 dav Ile 0 t tr in buirr busif Wits (10101 (Celt! T~ ED TO ith the au has eineau than errick, r first S. many ill be RY who n on for n at his ega so ful ried the ugh ars, to en at SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN' CHAPTER VI. Central Pacific Railroad of California Incorporated UDAH went into the mountains and during the fall of 1860 made barometrical observations on three routes: one through El Dorado County by way of Georgetown; another by way of Dutch Flat (the route selected for the Central Pacific); and a third by Nevada and Henness Pass. These observations confirmed Judah's belief that the Dutch Flat route offered a means of crossing the Sierra Nevada mountains with grades not greater than 105 feet t~ the mile. Field parties were organized in the spring of 1861, and a thorough survey demonstrated that the difficulties and formidable features of this range could be either avoided or successfully overcome for railroad purposes. Among the features which rendered the Sierra Nevada mountains so formidable for railroad operations were the great elevation to be overcome in a comparatively short distance; the want of uniformity in the western slopes; the difficultv of river crossings in the mountains, and the precipitous second summit of the range. Natural ]Route The line Judah selected might have been made to order. It followed a practically unbroken divide lying between the American River and its north fork on the south and the Bear River and the South Yuba on the north. Along the line of this ridge, which ran from base to summit of the Sierra, only one river crossing in the mountains was necessary. The line also avoided the second summit of the Sierra and the crossing of the Washoe Mountains. Meanwhile, in Washington, the government, bombarded from all sections of the country, had been unable to decide on any plan to meet the growing demand for a Pacific Railroad. In 1855 the Secretary of War had made a report to Congress on the several surveys made under his direction. While this report increased interest in a Pacific Railroad, it also stimulated sectional jealousies which for a long time stood in the way of selecting any one route for a railroad. Each part of the country through which it could pass, wanted it and no section was willing to step aside and let the prize go elsewhere. February, 1927 It was a game of dog in the manger on a national scale.' The history of the Pacific Railroad in Congress for several years thereafter was a repetition and elaboration of the arguments, estimates, opinions, and plans which had been put forth by individuals and conventions since 1832. The report of the Secretary of War was referred to a select committee, which reported a bill providing for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by the contractor who wo?ld make the lowest bid for carrving troops, mails, and government freight. W. M. Gwin, senator from California, offered as a substitute a bill providing for three roads. This bill passed the Senate but the House took no notice of it. The next session a number of Pacific Railroad bills were introduced. All this time the question of slavery was becoming more and more a vital issue. The southern legislators would not support a northern road lest the northern population should flow out and absorb the public lands along its route; the north would not permit the south to have it lest it should prove a link to bind the territory acquired from Mexico, including California, to the slaveholding states. For successive sessions, through all the political excitement which preceded the Civil War, the Pacific Railroad question was presented over and over NOTE 15-Gwin's bill provided for one road c mmencing at the western border of Texas, another at the border of Missouri or Iowa, and a third at the border of Wisconsin. He named them respectively the Southern, Central, and Northern Pacific Railroads. The bill required the contractor in each case to deposit $500,040 with the government, of which he could draw out $5,000 at a time as work to that amount ~Vaslcompletcd. The roads were to be divided in 00-mile sections. The bill provided that there should be set apart for the construction of these roads a quantity of public land equal to the odd numbered sect i on s for the space of twelve miles on each side of the road for the entire length. The builder, after completing the first 100 miles and having it in operation, was to receive three-quarters and an advance of $2,500,000 in United States six-per-cent bonds, this money to be repaid fifteen years after the completion 0 f the road. Bond aid was to be limited to $15,000,000. All lands unsold at the end of ten years was to revert to the government. When fully completed, the road was to be surrendered to the government, which in turn would surrender it to the various states those sections that passed through their territory. These sections would be operated thereafter by the different states. again. In the session of 1860-61 the House passed a bill'providing for two roads. The Senate amended it and passed a bill calling for three roads. The House refused to take any action. South Carolina seceded from the Union December 20, 1860, followed uy other states. On January 9, 1861, trie ship Star of the West, on its way to Fort Sumter, was fired on by a confederate battery. On April 12, Fort Sumter was attacked. This started the Civil War, which continued until Lee's surrender at Appomatox, April 9, 1865, brought hostilities to an end. Effect of War The War, of course, eliminated the southern states from any hand in the selection of a route for a Pacific Railroad. It also restricted the choice of routes to northern territory. Furthermore, it brought home to Congress the fact that rail communication with the Pacific slope was not merely desirable for commercial and sentimental reasons but was essentially a military necessity. It was known that in California particularly there was a strong southern sentiment, and it was feared this influence might be used either to place the new state in the confederate column or even to bring about its return to Mexico. When President Lincoln was urged by members of Congress that the government should build the Pacific railroad, he is said to have replied: The national government has its hands full carrying on the war. Private enterprise must build the Pacific Railroad and all the government can do is to aid; even admitting its construction is a political as well as a military necessity.)) Friends of the Pacific railroad took full advantage of this situation, and word was sent to California that the passage of a Pacific railroad bill at the next session of Congress was a certainty. Judah's reports of his survey being satisfactory, Huntington and his associates, on June 28, 1961, incorporated the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, with a capital stock of $8,500,000. Leland Stanford, who bad just been elected governor of California, was chosen president of the company; Collis P. Huntington, vicepresident; his partner, Mark Hopkins, treasurer; James Bailey, secretary; and Judah, chief engineer. Page Nine The first directors were: Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, James Bailey, Theodore Judah, L. A. Booth, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, all of Sacramento, Daniel W. Strong of Dutch Flat, and Charles Marsh, of Nevada. The capital stock of the company was divided into_85,000 shares of $100 each. The first subscribers were: Stanford, Huntington, Hopkins, Judah, and Crocker, 150 shares each; Glidden and Williams, 125 shares each; Charles A. Lombard and Orville D. Lombard, 320 shares each; Samuel Hooper, Benjamin J. Reid, Samuel P. Shaw, 50 shares each; R. 0. Ives, 25 shares; Edwin B. Crocker, 10 shares; and Samuel Brannan, 200 shares. Bancroft, the historian, in commenting on the organization of the company, calls attention to the inadequacy of the orgartization's strength for the work it was about to undertake. He says: Indeed, when it is remembered that neither Congre s, individual states, nor syndicates of capitalists had yet been found willing to lay hold of so stupendous and hazardous an enterprise as that of constructing a Pacific railway at that time, the audacity of the Sacramento corporation in attempting the most difficult portion of it appears an act of madness or of inspiration. Few were found to give material encouragement to the project, and many said that those Sacramento merchants who had ventured upon it would sink their personal fortune in the canyons of the Sierra. CHAPTER VII. Pacific Railroad Bill After he had filed with the newly organized company a very complete report of his surveys in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, with an estimate of the cost of construction, Judah was directed to proceed to Washington and there to do all in his power to secure the passage of a Pacific railroad bill which would recognize the Central Pacific Railroad Co. of California As the organization to build the western end of the transcontinental road, and to secure for the builders all the government aid pos NOTE 16~The organization popularly referred to as the Central Pacific was chartered in 1861 as the Central Pacific Railroad Com any of California. The company consonp at,d June 23,,1870, with the Western Pacific Railr.ad C pany and the name was changed to Central Pacific Railroad Company. On July 29, 1899, the railroads and other property of the Central Pacific Railroad Compary? were conveyed to the Central Pacific Railway Company, the present title of the organization. The Central Pacific was organized under the laws of California to build a railroad to the state line. The estimated cost was $8,500,000. At that figure the company's capital stock was fix6d. ' It was soon demonstrated that the original estimate was too low and, as the law limited the bonded indebtedness to the amount of.capital stock, it was necessary, in order to raise more money, to increase the capital stock. The articles Of incorporation were amended October 8, 1 864. and the capital stock increased to $20,000,000. Necessity for further increase developed when Congress, on July 3, 1866, amended the Pacific Railroad Act to give the Central Pac ific the right to build eastward until it should meet the Union Pacific instead of stopDing 150 miles east of the line of the state. To meet the demands of this additional construction the capital stock was increased to $100,000,000. Faze Ten SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIM COLLIS P. HUNTINGTON First Vice President of the Central Pacific who was the financial genius of the Big Four and raised most of the money used by the four Sacramento merchants in constructing the first sections of the Company's line to the East in 1863. sible. Judah sailed for New York by the Isthmus of Panama October 10, 1861. Aaron* A. Sargent, newly elected member of Congress from California, was a fellow passenger, and Judah undertook to educate him as he had educated Congressman Burch and Senator Land years before under similar circumstances. Judah was well qualified for this particular task, had confidence in his own plan, and the gift of untiring enthusiasm. To quote a writer who saw him in action during those days, his knowledge of his subject was so thorough, his manners so genteel and insinuating, his conversation on the subject so entertaining, that few resisted his appeals. Sargent had no course of instruction. In addition to exDlaining the details of his plan to Sargent, Judah worked on a pamphlet based on his recent survey of the Sierra, and shortly after his arrival in the East completed it and had it published. He tells what he did with the coDies: I procured one - thousand coDies, distributing a portion of the same among railroad men where likely to do us most good, sending copies to President Lincoln, the heads of deoartments, and to our senators and representatives in Congress. It was also published in the railroad journals, and thereby obtained considerable circulation before the meeting of Congress. In New York Judah met James A. McDougall, senator from California and chairman of the Pacific Railroad Committee of the Senate. Judah camped on McDougall's trail until, as he says, I left fully satisfied that in him the Pacific Railroad had a firm friend, not likely to be discouraged by the threatening aspect of our affairs, but ready and anxious to adopt the vlan best calculated to make the Pacific Railroad a success in the pres ent session of Congress and to urge the same to a si)eedv end. Such an impression did Judah's knowledge of his subject make on McDougall, that the senator requested hirn to be in Washington a week before the meeting of Congress, to aid in the prenaration of a Pacific Railroad bill. it It was Senator McDougall's desire to take advantap-e of the favorab-e temper of Congress, and submit a report on the Pacific Railroad bill from his c mmittee early in the session. At McDougall's request, Judah prepared a bill along the lines of the Curtis bill, which Congress had failed to pass the year before. It was decided not to report the bill, however, until an effort had been made to secure harmonious action in the House of Representatives. Congressman Sargent was assigned to the Pacific Railroad Committee in the House, and, as he was placed on no other committee, was able to devote his time and energies almost exclusively to that subject. Sargent prepared a bill along similar lines to the Senate bill. He was unable to get any action for nearly two months; then, undoubtedly prodded into action by the indefatigable Judah, he obtained the floor while Congress was sitting in Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union and delivered a speech on the subject of the Pacific Railroad. The fact that it had no direct bearing on the business the House had intended to discuss occasioned some surprise, but served the intended purpose of arousing general attention to the subject of the Pacific Railroad. The House Pacific Railroad Committee decided to report favorably on the bill that Sarvent had prepared. Pass Railroad Bill After much discussion and many changes, the Pacific Railroad bill passed the House on May 6, 1862. It was reported to the Senate the following day and was passed by the Senate June 20. It was signed by President Lincoln July 1, 1862. Judah, on account of his knowledge of the subject and because of his past legislative experience in this same connection, had been appointed secretary of the Senate Pacific Railroad Committee, which enabled him to attend all their meetings and gave him the privilege of the floor of' the Senate. He also, through Sargent, was appointed clerk of the main house committee. Through these appointments, Judah was able to keep constant and close contact with every step that was taken. It is interesting to note from the discussions in the House and Senate that preceded the passing of the Pacific Railroad bill that the legislators of 1862 felt they were doing a bigger thing for the United States than for the builders of the Pacific Railroad. Congressman Campbell, of Pennsylvania, chairman of the House Committee on Pacific Railroad, said: The NOTE 17-Judah ~ report 1862 on his operations in the Atlan;ic States. NOTE 18- Judah's report 1862. p. 6. February, 1W7 M tt itt 1,0 pI fit Lo rc to Lh It( VZ to Lt LE Ic t( it tl e a 9 e h r a n a r t P b t r t t s f t t road is a necessity to the government. It is the government thA is asking individual capitalists to build the road. Gentlemen are under the impression that it is a very great benefit to these stockholders to aid them to the extent of about half the capital required. I beg leave to call the attention of these gentlemen that it is the government Which was under necessitv to construct the road. If the capitalists -of. the country are willing to come forward to advance half the amount necessary for this greatenterprise, the government is doing little in aiding the company to the extent of the other half by way of a loan. Another speaker said: It is not supposed in the first instance that the company will reimburse the interest to the government. It will reimburse it in transi)ortation. Still another. I undertake to say that not a cent of these advances will ever be repaid, nor do I think it desirable that thev should be, as this road is to be the highway of the nation.,, In the Senate, Henry Wilson, senator from Massachusetts, said: I give no grudging vote in giving away either money or land. I would sink a hundred million dollars in opening a railroad and do it most cheerfully, and think I had done a great thing for my country. What are seventy-five or a hundred million dollars in opening a railroad across the central regions of this continent that shall connect the people of the Atlantic and Pacific and bind us together? Nothing. As to the lands, I don't grud-e them. Money All Repaid The ideas of these legislators were not, however, given concrete form in the Pacific Railroad bul, and the Central Pacific repaid every cent of principal and interest that was advanced by the government to aid in its construction. The Pacific Railroad bill provided for the construction of a railroad and teleg-rauh line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of about 2,000 miles, and crossing the Rocky and Sierra Nevada mountains. The nart of this work assigned to the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California was to construct a railroad And telegraph line.from the Pacific coast at or near San Francisco or the navigable waters of the Sacramento River to the eastern boundary of California. The act, gave the company the right to extend the road from Sacramento to San Francisco with all rights, grants,, donations, etc.. criven to that portion of the line west of the western base of the Sierra.Nevada mountains. The government gave the company a right of way 200 feet on each side of the railroad across all government lands, as well as the grounds necessary for stations, machine shops, and other necessary structures, and the privilege of taking earth, stone, timber, and all other available material for construction from government lands adjacent to the road. Judah pointed out that the govern February, z927 SOUTREP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN __ ment grant of such a wide right of way was very liberal and most advantageous to the company, in that it precluded the possibility of building a parallel road for the same route without at many points occupying Central Pacific lands. The aet gave the company every alternate section of public land, designated by @dd numbers, to the amount of five sections per mile on each side of the railroad, or 6,400 acres. Mineral lands were excepted, but it was provided that, where mineral lands contained timber, the timber should go to the company. The lands were to be turned over to the company as the road was completed; no lands to be turned over until 40 miles had been finished and -approved, when patents would be issued for the lands on each side of the comDleted section. The government further agreed that with each addition of 40 miles the government would issue to the company United - States bonds of $1,000, to run for thirty years at six per cent., at the rate of $16,000 a mile. Througgh the foresight of Collis P. Huntington, there was inserted in the act a provision providing that the government would pay the interest until the maturity of the bonds. In view of the tremendous expense involved in the mountain construction, it was agreed that the mone- advanced by the government for the 150 miles east of the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains should be on the basis of $48,000 to the mile. In consideration also of its distance from the base of suDplies, the advance for that section eastward of the 150mile limit between the Sierra and the Rocky mountains, was fixed at $32,000 to the mile. - The Lrovernment bonds were to be a first mortgage on the entire property of the company. The Central Pacific was required to complete 50 miles within two years of filing assent to the provisions of the act, to build 50 miles a year thereafter, except in the mountain region, where 20 miles was fixed as the annual minimum. The act stipulated that the entire Pacific Railroad should be completed by Julv 1, 1876, under pain of forfeiture, and that no other than American iron be used in the rails or in the construction and equipment of the road. The act also provided that all compensation for services rendered the government should be aDi)lied to trie payment of bonds and interest until the whole amount was fully paid. 1L further stipulated that after the completion of the road and. until the bonds and interest were paid, at least five per cent. of the net earnings should be annlied annually to the payment of the debt. Lincoln Kept Promise This act was not satisfactory to the orc,anizers of the Central Pacific, but they accepted it on the assurance of President Lincoln that any modifications that were found necessary to make the government aid of practical service in getting a railroad built would be made. This promise was kept, and in 1864 the act was amended in a number of important details. The act of 1864 increased the grant of public lands to ten alternate sec tions on each side of the railroad within the limits of twenty miles orr each side, or 12,800 acres per mile; provided that the mineral lands ex cented from the operation of the act should not include coal and iron lands; extended the time for completing the railroad to July 1, 1877; reduced the annual minimum of construction to 25 miles of railroad a year; provided that only half the compensation for services rendered the government should be applied to the payment of bonds; and simplified the financing of the project by authorizing the issu ance of two-thirds the amount of (Continued on Page r8) Chinese laborers working with wheelbarrows and dump carts took the place of modern steam shovels in moving dirt in grading and building road bed for the first Central Pacific lines. This picture was taken during t868 an one of the heavy cuts in the Sierra Nevada Mountain& Page Eleven upright and worthy; and as a coworker, courteous and loyal; he has earned the respect and affection of all. Many other wires and letters were received from officers, former associates and brotherhood lodges all over the System. Mayor Sinsheimer called attention to the fact that Roger did not leave his work beh-*nd when he stepped from the engine cab, but that he carried the interest of the railroad with him among his friends and neighbors. Record an Inspiration First Assistant General Manager F. L. Burckhalter said he felt like a youngster in the service alongside Mr. Trewick. He thanked the veteran engineer in behalf of the management for his years of faithful service and stated that Roger's record should be an inspiration and incentive for the younger railroad men. Tom Negrich, former engineer on the Coast Division and now a San Francisco attorney, brou-ht several good laughs with his recounting of incidents when he fired for Roger. I always knew when we were hitting it along right, for Ro-er brought his jaws down on his chew of tobacco in perfect rhythm with every turn of the drivers, but if we were behind time, how those jaws did work, he said. Also, it wasn't only at little girls and old women that Roger tooted his whistle. Assistant General Manager T. Ahern told of the pleasant associations he had with Trewick when he was superintendent of the Coast Division and' Roger was division chairman of the engineers. F. M. Worthington, retired superintendent of the Coast Division, explained the meaning of Brownies. Speaking from his long experience as a train man and how easy it was to make a slip up that would assess a few demerits, he commended Roger on Winding up so long a service without a mark on his personal record. A fine tribute to the part Mrs. SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN Trewick had taken in making possible Ro.-er's long career was paid by J. A. Christie, superintendent of the Santa Fe's Coast Lines. It is the faith and encouragement of loved ones and the influence of a happy home that makes the man a success, he said. When a man's mind is free to think of his work he has every advantage of becoming a success. Mr. and Mrs. Trewick have been married 44 years. She was Emma Gertrude Linn, the daughter of a Reno justice of the peace. They met while she was teaching school at Win nemucca. How my wife ever hap pened to be in such a wild and woolly pl , ace I have never been able to figure out, says Roger. They have had five children; three dauphters have gone through college and two sons are dead. Roger has two brothers, Archie and John. Between thern, they have the distinction of having a total of 150 years' railroad service. Archie is 67 years old and heads the engineer seniority list on the Salt Lake Division with 47 years 6 months' service. .Harry is at present road foreman of engines for the Northern Pacific at Tacoma. He is 62 years old and has been in the service of that company more than 45 years. Good to Have Friends It was a few minutes before Roger could collect himself to speak when he was called on at the banquet. It is good to have so many friends, he said. and there is something in my heart I would like to tell you, but I can't express it. Except for the number of years I have been on the job, I do not think my service has been out of the ordinary. I have tried to do what was expected of me, and in accomplishing this my friends have been a big help. As Mr. Christie intimated, there is nothing quite so helpful or encouraging as the wife's elbow in your ribs when the caller comes in the early morning. But, in all seriousness, my home has always been a happy one and again Mr. Many imm~g,anl trains bringing settlers to the West were handled by Roger Trewick when he was engineer on the old umboldt Division, Several nationalities may be distinguished by the style of dress shown in this picture which was taken at Mill City, Nevada, in 1886. There were nine cars of emigrants on this train. Mr. Trewick was engineer on the locomotive Antelope. He is standing in the front row wearing the white sun helmet. To the right of him are: Brakeman L. Jones, Conductor Miles T. Coates, Fireman F. Hammond and Brakeman F. Gillett. Page Eighteen Christies' remarks are true. It is a noble corporation whose pension system makes this reunion of my friends possible. To tell the truth, I have gotten old and didn't realize it. Arrangements for the banquet were made by a committee composed of J. A. McCarthy, formerly an engineer on the Coast Division; W. G. Fifield, road foreman of envines on that division; and Lee Hamlin, fuel inspector, also a former engineer on the Coast and at one time a fireman for, Trewick. During the evening music was furnished by an orchestra composed of employes from the San Francisco Freizht Station, and Miss Letty Collins, of the Treasury Department, sang several numbers. Before the banquet was adjourned Mr. Fifield presented Mr. and Mrs. Trewick with a large radio set equipped with all accessories. Roger has made no definite plans for the future. For the present at least the family will live at Pacific Grove. Now that I am off the run I find that I really am tired, and am going to take a little rest, he says. We may visit some of our friends and then I am going back to work again. I've got several good years ahead of me and the best way to keep fit will be to keen, busy. I regret that my railroad days are over, but I kept the pace, made the run and finished clear, and to me that brings a great deal of satisfaction. From Trail to Rail (Continued front Page ir) bonds upon a certificate from the chief engineer that a certain proportion of the preliminary work had been done, the remaining third to be issued on completion of the 25 miles. The most important modification was that the act of 1864 authorized the company to issue first mortgage bonds to the same amount as the United States bonds, and provided that the federal bonds should be subordinate to the company's bonds. Until this action was taken the company's own bonds had little market value, as, under the act of 1862, they were but second mortgages on the property. The act of 1862 granted the Central Pacific authority to build beyond the borders of California if the Union Pacific had not yet reached that far. The act of 1864 limited the construction to 150 miles eastward of the California-Nevada border. This restriction was removed July 3, 1866, and the Central Pacific authorized to tinue its eastern way until it met the Union Pacific. Before Judah left Washington the Pacific Railroad Committees of both Senate and House joined in a testi nial, thanking him for his valuable assistance in aiding the passage of the Pacific Railroad bill through NOTE 19-When this limitation was called to Huntington's attention he said that he was satisfied the Central Pacific could make under the amended act, such a showing thai when the time came the government would remove the restriction. February, '??7A Con was and 11 YC Siei tied of 1 ben ineE erti the pris inat A pas: and lay,, the of I Ian( agr wit] J1 long his I find iror and thai new to : beh thei mal seci diti ing cifi( A had Oct Cen Cal unt In call f roi foll w w the F hav see TR. T cus; Cor frej prii era Fra I cifi( abo pai Cot the 110 adN con ass Lo! Sto 11y. Col sar J Fri C o'. M 0 Fe SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN Congress. The testimonial, which was signed by forty-six congressmen and seventeen senators, concluded: Your explorations and surveys in the Sierra Nevada mountains have settled the question of the practicability of the line and enabled many members to vote confidently on the great measure, while your indefatigable exertions and intelligent explanations of the practical features of the enterprise have gone very far to aid in its inauguration. As soon as Judah saw the bill passed and signed by the president, and in order to avoid any further delays, he filed with the Secretary of the Interior maps of the general route of the road, so that the government lands with which the government agreed to aid in construction could be withdrawn from sale. Judah had been too active far too long to allow any grass to grow under his feet. He hastened to New York, and, finding that as a result of the war iron was rapidly advancing in price and there were so many orders in that mills were refusinz to consider new work, he arranged with an agent to secure iron, locomotives and cars before the market advanced any further. Judah had no authority to make any contracts, but was able to secure agreements to sell on the condition that his orders were not binding until ratified by the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Although telegraph communication had been established in the east since October 25, 1861, the directors of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California got few details of the bill until Judah's return to California. In fact their knowledge was practically confined to a brief telegram from Collis P. Huntington, who had followed Judah to Washington and was there during the final debate on the bill. Huntington's telegram read: 'we have drawn the elephant. Now let us see if we can harness him. (To be continued) TRAFFIC MEN OF PACIFIC LINES IN CONFERENCE Traffic matters in general and discussion of plans for maintaining the Company's standard of service in both freight and passenger traffic was the principal order of business at the General Traffic Conference held at San Francisco on January 6-7. raffic men from all points on Pa cific Lines were in attendance and about 75 representatives of both de partments attended a dinner in the Concert Room of the Palace Hotel on the evening of the 6th. There were no formal talks, and everyone took advantage of the opportunity to be come better acquainted. F. E. Scott, assistant freight traffic manager at Los Angeles, presided at an hour of stories calling on several for the best yarn in their repertoire. Miss Letty Collins, of the Treasury Department, sang I several numbers. J. J. Grogan, general agent of tfie Freight Department at Chicago; C. T. Collett, freight assistant to Traffic Manager E. W. Clapp; and W. W. Fehruary, r927 The Company's new electric auto ferry boat Fresno- just before it was launched at San Francisco January 15. Lower inset is of Miss Shirley Harding who was the sponsor at the christening ceremonies. Above, right, is Passenger Traffic Manager F. S. McGinnis who presented the boat to Fresno, and, left, is Mayor Al Sunderland who responded in behalf of the citizens of Fresno, about 1 25 of whom were present at the launching. Mayor Sunderland is holding a miniature model of the Fresno constructed by C. C. Collins, clerk at Port Costa. Auto Ferry Boat Fresno 11 Is Launched BEFORE a large delegation of Fresno residents, railroad and shipbuilding, representatives and other visitors, the auto ferry boat Fresno was launched January 15 at the Potrero plant of the Bethlehem S~hipbuilding Corporation in San Fran cisco. Miss Shirley Harding, daughter of C. R. Harding, engineer of standards, acted as sponsor for the new boat. A brief program preceded the launching when the boat was presented to the citizens of Fresno by Passenger Traffic Manager F. S. McGinnis. Mayor Al Sunderland responded for Fresno. More than one hundred citizens, headed by Mayor Sunderland and Frank Bradford, president of Fresno County Chamber of Commerce, journeyed from Fresno to be present at the launching. They were served breakfast while being conveyed on a special ferry boat to the ship-building Hale, general agent at Detroit, were off-line traffic men present at the conference. The holiday season just past, said Mr. Grogan, recalls to my mind the biblical story of some 2000 years ago when the three wise me n came out of the East to do homage to their king with offerings of gold, frankincense and myrrh. We, too, come out of the East offering loyalty, fidelity and good will. Loyalty to the railroad that has brought the West close to us; fidelity to those officers who are responsible for this progress; and good will to my coworkers who each in his own particular way contributes to the success of the undertaking. Luck always seems to favor the man who doesn't count on it. -The Watchman. yard. Dancing and a program of entertainment was held on the ferry boat while the visitors were being taken to the Ferry Building in San Francisco. The Fresno will be the largest autornobile ferry boat on San Francisco Bay and is the first of three boats which will soon be placed in the Company's service. The second boat will be launched early in March and the last one about the middle of April. The Fresno will be ready for a trial trip about March 15. The new boats are to be of all steel construction and electrically equipped throughout from the engine room to the galley. Four powerful Diesel engines will generate the electricity to operate two motors, each connected with a screw propeller, one forward and one aft. The Fresno is 256 feet long and 66 feet wide and will carry 100 automobiles. NEW APACHE TRAIL COACHES HAVE OVERHEAD VISION A new type of motor coach, which solves the problem of overhead vision for passengers, has recently been completed for exclusive use on the Apache Trail of Arizona. The new car has telescoping top which slides back to a compact space in the rear of the coach, allowing sight-seers to view freely the rugged cliff s and gorgeous coloring along the world-famed highway between Phoenix and Globe. The top may be rolled back, giving complete protection from adverse weather. Seated in reclining cushioned chairs, tourists can lean back and gaze at the full expanse of sky, steep canyon walls and trees without the slightest discomfort, while wide plate glass windows allow a fine panoramic view. Page Nineteen CHAPTER VIII. Work Begins at Sacramento and Opposition Develops The Central Pacific Railroad Company agreed to carry out the requirements of the Pacific Railroad bill, and on December 3, 1862, filed formal acceptance. On December 27, 1862, contract for the first eighteen miles of construction was given to Charles Crocker & Co., and on January 9, 1863, the work of construction was formally begun. Charles Crocker retired from the Board of Directors and was ~iven the title of general superintendent. His brother, E. B. Crocker, a Sacramento attorney, who was also attorney or the company, took his place on the directorate. No sooner was it evident that the Sacramento merchants really intended to build a railroad than there developed in California the most tremendous opposition to the enterprise. While the Pacific Railroad was merely a football of politics, as it had been since 1832, its desirability was never questioned. The only difference of opinion was as to how it should be built and the route it should take. As soon as these details were decided and the Pacific railroad bill passed there came a change. The Central Pacific Railroad of California in operation would dominate and revolutionize in the West the business of carrying freight, passengers, and mail. Men interested in established transportation activities awoke to a realization of the effect the railroad might have on their personal affairs. Congress required that the Central Pacific should build a telegraph line as well as a railroad. This aroused the antagonism of the existing telegraph companies. It was also required that the railroad should reach San Francisco. This meant coml)etition for the Steam Navigation Company and the clipper ship owners. The railroad was to cross the Sierra Nevada Mountains and connect with the line to the east. This aroused the Pacific Mail Steamship Company and the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company. The latter operated a railroad from Sacramento eastward about 40 miles. A line across the continent was also March z927 feared by the stage companies and express companies, the Pony Express and the toll roads, all of which would have to give way before the iron horse. They all joined the opposition. Contractors who had been supplying the various armv nosts and Indian agencies lent their influence with the others to block the progress of the railroad. All these interests combined influenced the press and politicians. A caml)aign of interference was started which extended to the money centers of the East, Germany, France and England with the purpose of injuring the credit of the associates and preventing their raising money to build the road. The general belief that the construction of a railroad across the Sierra was impracticable lent strength to the opposition. Prominent among opponents of the railroad was the Sitka Ice Company which had been bringing ice down from Sitka, Alaska, and selling it to San Francisco at 5c a pound. This business netted the ice company a profit of about $75 a ton.20 which they enjoyed until the new railroad opened the way to the lakes of the high Sierra. It was estimated that by breaking the Sitka Ice Company's monoply the Central Pacific saved San Francisco alone $600,000 a year. Another influence against the railroad was the Overland Stage Company, which received from the government $1,800,000 a year for carrying the United States mail. These interests combined to fight the railroad in the money markets, through the press and by means of hostile legislation in the legislatures of both California and Nevada. Even a year after construction started, May 14, 1864, the Alta California, one of San Francisco's lead NOTE 20-The Sitka Ice Company obtained its ice from two fresh water lakes, one near Sitka and the other in Wood Island nea r Kodiak, Alaska. During the years 1852-53 three great warehouses for the storage of ice were built at Sitka and Kodiak. Rails were shipped from San Francisco and laid down to connect these warehouses with the wharves where the ice ships were loaded. These rails were the first metal tracks ever laid in Alaska. The company erected ice warehouses capable of storing 400 to 1300 tons of ice at Sacramento, Stockton, Marysville, San Jose and other California cities to take care of the ice as it arrived from Alaska. The trade flourisbeq until the Central Pacific opened communication with the lakes of the high Sierra. ing newspapers, gave prominence to a communication, signed Phoenix, which said: The first 50 miles will exhaust all their resources. If all the counties subscribed, togetber with state and federal aid, it does not require much foresight to predict that the company will stop at the end, or nearly so, of the first 50 miles, which I think, is 22 miles of Dutch Flat. The toll wagon road may run down to meet the railroad but it is doubtful whether the railroad will go farther than the 20 miles to meet the wagon road. Opposition was manifested as soon as the cornDany attempted to sell stock. Marcus D. Boruck, who was engaged to sell Central Pacific shares in San Francisco, testified before the Pacific Railway Commission that during the latter part of 1862 and the first part of 1863, he opened an office in San Francisco at the corner of Bush and Montgomery streets and kept it open for 22 days, and in all got three subscriptions of 15 shareS.21 In testifying as to the company's financial difficulties at this time, Boruck said: In the first place, there was but a single newspaper in the city of San Francisco which favored them, and, I think, one or two outside of San Francisco. It was a very difficult matter for them to raise money from the moneyed men and they had to go along very slowly and do the best they could. As to the inside details of how they secured money to carry on the road, that I do not know anything about. They had a great many obstacles to contend with. The telegraph company was opposing thern because they had to construct a telegraph line, the stage companies opposed them, the Pacific Mail Company opposed them, and the newspapers opposed them. I know that at one time it was a close call whether tbey would be able to prosecute the work at all. I know at one time for, I think, 17 days, they had not a dollar in the treasury with which to prosecute their work. CHAPTER IX. Friends Warn Associates-Huntington Qualifies as Financial Wizard Former friends of the associates shook their heads in warning and deplored their poor judgment in risking NOTE 21-Pac. Railway Com. p. 3421. Page Nine the labors of a lifetime in an undertaking which must end in disaster for everybody connected with it. California banks took the stand that the enterprise was not sound. Darius 0. Mills, one of the financial gi4nts of that_~ay, refused to have anything to do*'~vith the enterprise, as he testified later before the Pacific Railway Commission: JIn the first place because of the doubtfulness of its success and the ability of the parties to carry it out, and in the second place the viving up of an important business which it would perhaps involve if I went into the railroad. Mills, in his testimony in 1887 before the Pacific Railway Commission, sheds interesting light on how the business world of the early sixties regarded the venture of the Big Four. Money Was Scarce Speaking of the period of construction from Sacramento to Promontory, he said: The difficulties were very great and rendered their credit very poor. It was a constant struggle, and the sense of the community as well as my own was against their being able to carry out the enterprise. They borrowed in every way, on their own credit, on the credit of the road, and any credit they coulduse. They were generally understood to be borrowers to any amount they could get while constructing the road. They had difficulty always in borrowing on the first mortgage bonds when the road was unfinished because it was never classed as a first-class security. Loans made to the company were more on the individual credit of the parties than upon anything else. Money they had to have, and their own individual means formed but an insignificant part of the sum required. Judah had estimated the cost of building the first fifty miles, not including rolling stock, at $3,221,496. Under the Pacific Railroad Act they had to build fifty miles before any federal aid would be available. The requirement of the California law under which the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California had been incorporated, that shares representing $1000 for every mile of the proposed route be subscribed, had bee, complied with. Had this stock been fully paid up, which it wasn't, it would have brought in $138,000, a very small part of the amount necessary to finance the first fifty miles. There was no chance for more help in California. Personally and through agents, the associates had combed the western field thoroughly. They were satisfied that they had gathered in all the western money that was available for this purpose. Huntington went to New York, armed with an unlimited power of attorney from each of the associates authorizing him to use their names and pledge their property and credit to any extent he could or that he deemed necessary. He made the rounds of the biggest eastern capitalists but could not interest them in Central Pacific Railroad bonds. He did, however, interest them in the fact that he And his associates bore names in the commercial world which Page Ten SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN CHARLES CROCKER Under whose direction construction work on the original rail lines over the Sierra was carried out with such dispatch that the Central Pacific was completed seven years ahead of the time allowed by the government. stood for business integrity. The eastern capitalists decided that, while they had no faith in a Pacific railroad, they could afford to take a chance on men who had been successful in business and whose records were free from blemish. They agreed that ' if Huntington and his associates, individually and personally, would guarantee the interest on the Central Pacific bonds for ten years, they would take a limited number of them' In this way Huntington raised enough money to contract for the iron and other equipment for the first 50 Miles. Mr. Huntington, said D. 0. Mills, a quarter of a century later,22 was considered a very shrewd man to get those bonds started on moneyed men in New York. He succeeded in a small way after a while and it grew with exercise and energy and, I may say, using a great deal of talent and ability. CHAPTER X. - The Job They Had Undertaken A complete picture of the wo~k these four' men had undertaken is necessary in order to understand its magnitude. Financial difficulties, which were tremendous, were not lessened by the opinions freely circulated that the physical obstacles were insurmountable. It was talked around that the railroads then constructed in Europe were easy to build compared with the Central Pacific. Failure, it was an NOTE 22- Of course the government bonds could always be sold at a price. I presume 'hat there was no difficulty with them, but 'hat price was a low one. The bonds issued for the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California were not considered a first-class government bond. In the first place, they were currency bonds. and then their issue for this undertaking did not command a price equal to other government bonds relatively. Testimony D. 0. Mills, Pac. Railway Co. p. 3493. nounced on all sides, was clearly written on the rocky slopes of the canyons and the granite walls of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Not only was it impossible to construct a railroad across the Sierra, croakers declared, but, owing to the great depth of snow, which in some years reached an aggregate fall of 50 feet, it would be impossible to operate the road in the winter months. These rumors, many of them sponsored by engineers, increased the reluctance of moneyed men to participate. Under the Pacific Railroad bill, the Central Pacific was restricted to the use of iron rails manufactured in the United States. This barred them from other markets and gave the American mills an opportunity to raise the price which they did more than 80 per cent.21 Materials Via Cape Horn All the iron, rolling stock, and railroad material had to be manufactured in the Atlantic States. The country was at war and most of the plants able to supply the needs of the railroad were already working to their full capacity on government orders. After the material was manufactured, it had to be transported by sea and river thousands of miles, running the risk of shipwreck and the gauntlet of confederate cruisers. In addition to a heavy freight charge there was war insurance to be paid, which amounted to as high as 17 per cent. This journey by sea occupied eight to ten months, and it required unusual energy, ingenuity and foresightedness to have these supplies manufactured and shipped from Atlantic States so as to insure their delivery as the builders in California required them. The freight via Cape Horn to San Francisco on the first locomotive purchased by the company was $2,282.25. it was frequently necessary, however, during the later construction, in order that the work might not be delayed, to bring shipments by way of the Isthmus of Panama. Transportation costs over this route were very heavy. The freight charge alone on rail, as late as 1868, was $51.97 a ton. This made the cost of the rail, delivered at Sacramento, $143.67 a ton. The war had the effect of advancing transportation costs 275 per cent. Here are some of the freight rates the Central Pacific had to pay via the Isthmus. On one locomotive freight charges totaled $8100. On one shipment via the Isthmus of 18 locomotives, the freight charge was $84,466.80, or more than $4692.50 each. They had to have locomotives right away. Power was necessary to supply the materials needed for construction. The first ten engines purchased by the NOTE 23- When we started, Collis P. Huntington testified before the Pacific Railway Commission, iron was $62. Before we got across the mountains iron was sold $150 a ton. Locomotives went from $8,000 to as high as $32,500. We paid 2V2 per cent insurance in time of peace and in the time of rebellion we paid 17 per cent insuring the goods around Cape Horn. Many things went up 200 per cent, and I guess many things 300 per cent advance from the time we commenced the road before we got it completed. Pacific Railway Commission, p. 10. March. rgz7 Centr; cost I 10 m( Not railro prices expen nearl, to th( railro it wa gettir prosp diff er bor )A To distui 11stril along able-' $4 a rapid cific - labor pend( ment ever~ queni time 41exci shipr boldt Pacif 100 t signE acro; Th valu( to bc and the i Th fron] the unde ditio imm Spec Dec( 1869 sued peri. on t tiME D on for gol~ 75c curi peri diffi T the 186: $35 per: ,I by y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sie Ma S UTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN A. A- Sargent, No. 7 of the early Central Pacific locomotives, as it looked in 1865 at the foot ofJ street InSacramento. The little old locomotive has long sipce served its period of usefulness and J. street presents a far different appearance today. The Brannan House was afterwards named the Fremont Hotel and was known far and wide. Sacramento Union of January 9, there gathered in Sacramento dignitaries of the state, representatives of every portion of the commonwealth, and a great gathering of citizens, to see Leland Stanford, newly elected governor of -California and president of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, break ground for the commencement of the iron belt that was to make the' United States for the first time. a united country and open California to an era of great development. Ground Breaking From the newspaper accounts we gather that the Sacramento river had flooded, its banks and Front Street above K, where the ceremony took place, was, as one of the newspapers said, not favorable to the presence of the gentler sex, but the balconies opposite-on Front Street above Kwere adorned with a fair delegation. However, bales of hay were thrown into, the mud and furnished at least temporary footing for the crowd in the vicinity of the grandstand. A brass band on the balcony of the American Exchange Hotel entertained the assemblage, between speeches, with national airs and frequent repetitions of the then popular and most appropriate tune, Wait for the Wagon. As always on ceremonial occasions ofi the pioneer days, there was oratory. Governor Stanford, who was introduced by Charles Crocker, declared that the Pacific railroad would be to California and the Pacific Coast, and to~ the nation itself, what the Erie Canal was to New York. He predicted that the work would go on with no- delay, no backing, no uncertainty in the continued progress, and assured his hearers that they could look forward with confidence to the day not -far distant when the Pacific will be bound to the Atlantic by iron hands that shall consolidate and strengthen the ties of nationality and advance with giant strides the prosperity of our country. Rev. J. A. Benton called for divine blessing on the work. Governor Stanford , mounting an earthladen wagon, deposited the first dirt for the em Pace Twelve bankment. Charles Crocker, whose cheery voice was to be the accompaniment to which much of the hardest Work was to be done, loudly called for nine cheers, and the crowd, sharing his enthusiasm, gave him what he called for. Followed speeches. The orators included: A. M. Crane, of Alameda, president pro. tem. of the Senate; Assemblyman J. 'A:. Warwick, of Sacramento; Assemblyman J. A. Banks, of Sacramento; State Senator Walter - Van Dyke, from Humboldt County, who predicted that we by this road will secure the trade which the other nations for years and centuries have struggled to monopolizethe trade of the Indies ; Rev. Dr. J. T. Peck; Assemblyman Wm. H. Sears, of Nevada; Senator Newton Booth; Dr. J. F. Morse; and, last and most emphatic, Charles Crocker. Crocker's speech, which was very brief, concluded as follows: This is no idle ceremony. The pile driver is now, while I am talking, driving piles for the foundation of the bridge across the American River. Tomorrow morning one of the sub- contractors who owns these teams and has brought this earth here to deposit on the commencement of this road, will proceed across the river and commence the labor of grading. It is going right on, gentlemen, I assure you. All that I have- all of my own strength, intellect and energy-are devoted to the building of this section which I have undertaken. Amen. The scene furnished ample material to the hostile humorists of the day, who derided the formal shoveling of a little earth into a hole on the river bank, and predicted disaster for the enterprise. A few months later the place of the ceremony was one of the busiest spots on the continent. The Sacramento newspaper in which appeared the account of the groundbreaking ceremonies also told of Yankee prisoners from 23 regiments being brought into Chattanooga and a train of Federal wounded being thrown from the track in Alabama. There was reference to a battle fought a few days before at Murfreesboro. The same paper commented on assassinations by Sioux Indians in Minnesota and told how San Francisco had just collected and was sending $100,000 in food for the cotton operatives in Lancashire, England, who had been left without work on account of the war in America shutting off the supply of cotton. The Sacramento Union of October 27, 1863, tells us, The work of laying the rails has begun and it will continue until California and Washoe are united by iron bands and until iron rails are stretched across the continent. Civil War Events he same paper records President Lincoln's commendation of General Rosecrans for his attack at Chickamauga, tells of Grant at Chattanooga and of Sherman fighting his way along the lines of the Memphis & Charleston Railway, defeating every attempt of the rebel cavalry to check his progress. Hooker was reported to have crossed the Tennessee and Lee's army had recrossed the Rappahannock and handled Grigg's cavalry rather roughly. It was also noted that the French had blockaded all Mexican ports not occupied by French troops. So it would seem people of those days had a good deal to interest them apart from the transcontinental railroad. The first 18 miles was through the Sacramento streets to the American River, across the river and to Junction, or what is now known as Roseville. This section was finished February 29, 1864. The directors let no more contracts until that much of the road had been properly finished and was in running order. It was then decided to' go on to Newcastle, 31 miles from Sacramento. Charles Crocker was given only two miles of this 13-mile stretch for the reason, as Crocker explained later, that there was a hue and cry that I was a favored contractor. Crocker was given the heaviest two miles and was obliged later to finish much of the work let to other contractors because they got to bidding against each other for labor, which was very scarce, and ran up costs so high they were unable to finish the job. (To be continued) NOTE 24-The official gauge of the Central Pacific was, as now, 4 feet 83/2 inches. Presi dent Lincoln originally fixed it at 5, feet, which was the gauge required by the Central Pacific's state charter. The first material and' equi h gent for t e Central Pacific were ordered on e basis of a 5-foot gaug~e and the change to the narrower measure involved expense which the builders could ill afford. In fixing the gauge.. President Lincoln was carrying out one of the requirements of the Pacific Railroad Act. Congress, however, on representations by the New York Central, Michigan Central, Baltimore & Ohio_ Chicago & Northwestern. and the Rock Island that they had adopted 4 feet &Y2 inches as the standard gauge, adopted early in 1863 a resolution establishin !he gauge of the Pacific railroad at 4 feet SIN. inches. The problem, of gauge Was not finally settled by the railroads of the United States until 1886. Up to that. time established lines were using gauges ranging from 7 feet down. Between May 22 and June 2 of thal year more than 12,000 miles of railroad in the United States were changed from wide to standard gauge. The Louis & Nashville, ~by using a force of 8763 men; were able to change the puge of 1806 miles of main line and sidings in a single day. 11~F0 I by a those togrz Salt F rec Agosti Andre Apost( Andre Baker, Bartot Bened Benna Biancl Bonuc Buono Buonc Buono Bingh Briser Brinki Burg, Byrne Carr, Carto, Caseri Cesari Chian Chian Child, Christ Conge Coope Colem Charb Chene Dagse Dougl Down Ducci Ducci East, Edlin( Ellioti Erqui Farr, Fialdi Fialdi Fonta Franh Frant Fribe: Fribei Fui it. Fishe: Gabbr Garze Glem! Glem! Gonz~ Gonz; Gaspf Giant Godd. Goslb Grazi Grazi Guist Relto Higle liaml Isola: Isola Jones Jacks John! Kane Lee, Lars( Leng Lippa Littlf March, 19J? ye R, s e fr i n F M to T I 7, gE C, a n p 0- 1 W(SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIK (Continued frotn~ last month) A FTER the completion of the road to Newcastle the directors took stock of their experience in building 31 miles of road. They de cided that if the construction was di vided up among many contractors, as they had tried with the last 13 miles, labor would become unmanageable, the price of labor would run up, the work would be impeded, and the chances of success seriously jeopardized. It was important that the company should have more control over the construction than would be possible where the work was let out in comparatively small units. Labor was scarce and money was scarcer. It was necessary that the individual sections should be built as nearly as possible in consecutive order and that the work should be done first at the point nearest the last completed section so that, as each section was completed, it could be put into operation and made to yield revenue. It was decided that Crocker should go ahead with the work at the prices paid him for the two sections below Newcastle. It is characteristic of these men that the arrangement with Crocker was recorded merely as a resolution of the Board of Directors and that no written contract was entered into. He went at the work with a wil!. He gave up his business and devoted his entire time and fortune to building the road. He said later: I went on until we got tied up in suits and I had to stop. I could not get any money. They got all I had and all I could borrow. At that time I would have been very glad to take a clean shirt, lose all I had and quit. In July, 1863, Judah reported that 6000 tons of rails, or enough for sixty miles of track, had been purchased in the East and would be delivered at the rate of 500 tons a month. He also reported the purchase of 6 locomotives, 2 first-class passenger cars, 2 baggage cars, 25 platform freight cars, 15 box cars, and the necessary frogs, switches, turn tables, etc., for the first fifty miles. vas suggested that some kind of a celebration be held at the laying of the first rail. Huntington, however, opposed it. He said: If you want to jubilate in driving the first spike here, go ahead and do it. I don't. These mountains look too ugly and I see too much work ahead. We may fail and I want to have as few people know it as we can. Any little nobody can drive the first spike, but there are months of hard labor and unrest between the first and the last spike. The last spike is the one we'll celebrate. From the laying of the first rail until 1869, when the last spike was driven and the continental line completed, the Herald of the Morning was followed by a steady procession of sailin- vessels, loaded with iron and othe~supplies winging their way around Cape Horn. There were as many as thirty vessels loaded with supulies for the Central Pacific at sea at one time. From scattered and various records we are now able to get a picture of those early days when the Central Pacific was still regarded by the world as an impracticable dream which ,shows the Big Four in action. We see Huntington in New York scheming, pleadinfr and cajoling in the quest for money from all possible sources. When he was not trying to borrow money he was bargaining with manufacturers, foundries and ship owners so as to get as much for the money as possible. NOTE 25-Three of the locomotives were bought from Win. Ma5on & Co., Taunton, Mass. They were Atlantic, Pacific and John Conness. The Governor Stamford was bought from Norris & Co., Philadelphia, and the T. D. Judah and Collis P. Huntington from Danforth, Cook & Co., Patterson, N. J. The Governor Stanford has a place of honor in the Memorial Museum at the Leland Stanford Jr. University, P Alto The Judah aZIOHuntington were the two smallest engines ever used by the Central Pacific. The Conness was the first to be constructed with six driving wheels. The Locomotive in those days was as orna' mental as the engine of today is plain and businesslike. The steam dome' and sand box were either entirely eased in brass or decorated with brasscaps and bands. The bell was brass; so was the hand-rail. There was an edging of brass around the running board; the steam chest and cylinder were housed in brass casin ; there was a brass feed pump on either lises of the engine. The cab was painted black or brown, according to the taste of the decorator. There were brass bands covering the seams of the blue-black Russian iron jacket that covered the boiler. The number plate on the front of the smoke arch had a brass rim, and the headlight stand was trimmed with brass. Inside the cab was a blaze of brass. The driving wheels were painted a brilliant red. Many of the headlights were decorated with a picture, usually a reproduction of some California beauty spot. In some cases both Page Fourteen C. P. Huntington ...... T. D. Judah ........... Atlantic ............... John Conness ......... cab and tender were also decorated with works .of art in which paints of many colors and much gold leaf added to the riot of radiance from the brasswork. Polishing brass was the bane of the fireman's life, but although he grumbled much he pol ished more because rivalry between engine crews was keen in those days and pride fondly cherished. Even the engineer helped with the polishing. Many a Sunday when I didn't have to work, said an old en I spent the entire day polishinl brassgineer, The engineer was he, d responsible for keeping his engine in repair. It was his job to pack all the valve stems, pistons, pump plungers, valves and c6cks in the boiler head and cab. It 'a' up to him to keep the engine fit as well as shining. Engineers in the sixties and seventies nursed their engines all through the trip and did not say good-bye at the end of the journey until they had taken a hammer and felt her all over to make sure that nothing had cracked, loosened or gone by the board. The engineer was alsobreqi1ired to set up wedges to keep the driving ox in place, to Weight of Engines Number Names Tender with wood of of Engines and water-Tons Drivers Gov. Stanford 46 4 Pacific ............... 47 V2 4 is 2 18 2 47 4 50 6 key up the front and back ends of both main rods, and at outlying points had to perform such operations as reducing the brasses and very frequently had to wash out his own boiler. The locomotives were all named. A roster of the Central Pacific engines runs a wide gamut and invades many fields. Here are some of the names: Hercules, Tamaroo, Industry, Samson, Goliah, Gold Run, Ajax Achilles, Storm, Whirlwind, Leviathan, Vul' can, Vesuvius, Terrible, Growler, Mars, Apollo, Tempest, Hurricane, Flyer. There was a Blue Bird and a Magpie, to say nothing of a whole menagerie which included a Swan, Crane, Reindeer and five different colors of Fox. There were lady names as well as gentlerr~an names. Hector and Jupiter were there with Diana, Sultana and Juno. Many of them were named after towns, a few after individuals. Two 0 f them, Phil Sheridan and U. S. Grant, after distinguished warriors, The following table shows the size, weight, etc., of the first six locomotives used on the Central Pacific: Diam. of Diam. of Drivers-- Cylinders Feet Inches 4% 15 5 16 4 % 11 4 Y2 11 5 15 4 17 Length of Stroke 22 24 15 15 22 24 April, r9a7 ov til ar C, a til N. or la sc se fe ci! R: S, I E th H to co co fr PE w su S-, et re th th G ir ce rr or] to ba at co pr qu W4 bo 0 st, ar fir sa th al th I I h( sb ca 01 01 yc to It a al $1 SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN Alfred A. Cohen, in his testimony years afterwards before the Pacific Railway Commission) said: I have seen Mr. Huntington trudging about from office to office in New York try ing to get people to lend him money. For months, almost for a year if not more he was traveling, at night be tweQ Washington and Boston trying to raise money to send to California. They were put to terrible straits to get money to get over the mountains. Huntington also kept in touch with California, the progress of the work and the obstacles, social, financial and physical with which his associates were battling. In spite of the hardships of the ov r1and journey, made at first en tirely by stage and afterwards by rail and stage, he made frequent trips to California, where he would spend only a 'Few days before taking the same tiresome and hazardous trip back to New York. Huntington had to depend largely on his own eloquence and such col lateral as he and his associates could scrape together. It would have served no good purpose to have re ferred eastern capitalists to San Fran cisco bankers. Attornev Cohen told the Pacific Railway Commission: I have sat here in bank parlors in San Francisco and heard bankers say 'Don't you have anything to do with those men Stanford, Hopkins and Huntington. Don't you put any money ir;to their schemes. They are bound to come to grief. Nobody in the world could get that road through. ' Leland Stanford, president of the company, was in California winning friends for the railroad among the People and meeting organized hostility with good-natured appeal for aid and support and firm insistence on rights. On the line of the railroad out from Sacramento, bustling, sweating work ers were driving a way for the iron rails through the rocky ribs and up the precipitous sides of the Sierra to the persuasive urging of Charles Crocker's voice. Sailing ships loaded with railroad iron, knocked-down locomotives and cars, spikes and other construction material, were winging their way NoTE 26-In 18,56 Huntington stole a march on the Union Pacific in the purchase of 66,000 tons of rail which the U. P. needed very badly. Not only did I-I untington do this, but at the same time he defeated a threatened combine of the st eel mills to increase the price. To get these rails to California re quired a large number of vessels. Huntington went to E. B. Sutton to charter the necessary bottoms. Huntington gives the details: I said 'Well 1 want to get a good ship, a good st.eady ship,-safe.' 'You can go out and run around and give me a list of what you can find.' He came in with three or four. He said 'You can have this one for so much and V tKis'one for so much.' 'Such a. price,' said 1, 'is too high. I can't take one of those ships. I am in no hurry,' -aid I, 'ships are coming in all along.' Well, be came back. He went out three times and he came back with 23 ships. got them down whilst talking. 'Well ' said I suddenly, 'I'll take them.' 'Take the;Z,' said 'he, 'take what?' Said I. 'I will take those ships if they are A-No. l.' 'Well,' said lie, 11 can't let vou have them. I thought you wanted only one.' Said he' 'I will have to have two or three of them myself.' Said I, 'Not those you won't.' Well, those ships took about 45,000 ons of rail. Mr. Sutton told me afterwards, Huntington, you would have had to pay $10 a ton at least more if I bad known you wanted all those ships.' That would have been $450,000. April, z927 around Cape Horn, dodging Confederate privateers and battling the innumerable obstacles placed in their way by the elements. Maik Hopkins was in Sacramento nursing every dollar that came into the treasury, making' as h ' e used to tell in later days, one dollar-buy one doll- r and five cents worth. , All this time, however, money was getting scarcer. . Seeking help in all directions, the conipany turned to the communities through which the line was to pass and which would be directly benefited by its construction. The State Legislature authorized the counties of Placer, Sacramento and San Francisco to subscribe to the capital stock of the Central Pacific. The Legislature cleared the way for similar help from the counties of San Jcaquinj Santa Clara and San Francisco for the Western Pacific Railroad, which had been organized to build a line from San Jose to Sacramento to connect with the Central Pacific. CHAPTER XII Financial Difficulties. Judah Sells Out and Shortly After Dies. Before any of this help was available, however, the work of construction came almost to a stop. The money raised by Huntington in New York' had been exhausted and more was needed immediately. A meeting was held to discuss the emergency. Judah and Bailey wanted to raise money by mortgazing such of the road as bad been built, and the equipment. Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins and Crocker opposed this on the ground that such borrowing would harm their credit; that to mortgage their property at this stage would prevent future loans except at ruinous rates. The suggestion of the Big Four was that the directors provide money from their own means until the government aid should become available. They would then have enough of the it standing road in operation to give as a borrower. Buy us out, sell out to us, pay your share of what's necessary to keep the work going, or let's quit, was the ultimatum given by the Big Four to the other directors. The others elected to sell out. Judah is said to have received $100,000 for his holdings. A few months after this meeting Judah went east, contracted fever while crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and died Nov. 2, 1863, in New York. Thus Judah passed off the stage while the great work his enthusiasm had initiated was still in its infancy. Like the soul of John Brown, the spirit of the engineer went marching on. The line of the Central Pacific today follows practically the surveys made by Judah. His selection . of Donner Pass as the best route for a transcontinental railroad is justified today by the best engineering opinion in the world. le From Sacramento to Ogden, in 1869, over the line, the most difficult part of which was surveyed by Judah, the distance was 743 miles. Straightening out curves and other subsequent changes reduced this distance only five miles until 1904 when the opening of the Lucin cutoff, which was beyond the range of Judah's survey, but plans for which had been approved by C. P. Huntington before Huntington's death in 1900, shortened the run by 45 miles more. To the appeal for assistance Placer County responded by exchanging $250,000 of its bonds for Central Pacific capital stock. Sacramento County subscribed $300,000, and San Francisco, City and County, voted to help -to the extent of $600,000. Similar assistance voted at the same time to the Western Pacific was $250,000 from San Joaquin County, $150,000 from Santa Clara County, and $400,000 from San Francisco County. In addition to subscribing for stock -he little town of Cisco, near the summit of the Sierra, was a very busy--place during the building of the entral Pacific lines over the mountains. The picture was taken during j868 and shows the street filled with the wagons that haultd supplies and materials to the construction camps. Page Fifteen ~_:~___SOUTHEP_N PACIFIC BULLETIK the City of Sacramento granted to the Central Pacific 30 acres of land which included 1300 feet fronting on the Sacramento River.` The State legislature in April, 1863, passed an act to aid construction of the Central Pacific by a cash subsidy to be paid on a mileage basis. This act was repeated the following year and instead the State assumed for twenty years the payment of seven per cent interest on 1500 of the railroad company's $1,000 bonds. In return for this aid the company furnished certain free transportation and rendered other service to the State government. The first benefit received from this arrangement was in January, 1865, after the Supreme Cou rt of the State had ratified the action the legislature. In Placer County and in San Francisco the interests opposed to the railroad did everything they could to prevent action favorable to the company. In Placer County official investigations were promoted. It was declared that the company had no intention to build a line beyond Dutch Flat; that the builders of the road were even then organizing a company for freighting service over a wagon road built to operate from Dutch Flat over the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Dutch Flat Swindle A pamphlet was issued August 18, 1864, entitled the Dutch Flat Swindle, which was given wide circulation and which temporarily interfered very seriously with the financial plans of the associates. The pamphlet concluded with the statement that the directors do not intend to prosecute the enterprise to the state line but only a sufficient distance to feed the wagon road enterprise, owned by a portion of the Board of Directors. And in fine that the whole concern is a close corporation instituted, conducted and Inanagel to enrich the directors and impoverish the stockholders. The pamphlet was couched in strong personalities like all similar literature of that day. It was answered just as NOTE 27-This gift, generous as it was, proved a good investment for the City of Sacramento. On this land the companX located its principal shops. They were started in a modest way, employing in 1863 only fifteen men. By 1921 this plant for the repair and manufacture of railroad equipment had been extended to cover art area of 145 acres, employed 3100 men and distributed in Sacramento an annual payroll of $4,500,000. It was in these shoi4s, no~v equi~ped to do any kind of railroad repair ,gr . and to manufacture any kind of railroad e ment that the cars and locomot . quip c fr 'ves hipp d om the East in knoeked-down condi t We ion. re put together and made ready for service The original shops of the Central Pacific Railroad were located at the head of E St. at 6th and consisted of a shon for repairing cars, eveine house and blacksmith shop. The machine shop was a room about 12' by 121, con. tainine a grindstone, two vises and a stove. At that time there were about 7 locomotiv 50 cars and about 50 men in the service of te.s.' company at Sacramento. 1. IT. Graves was the first master mechanic of the Cen-ral Pacific. James L. Gerrish was foreman of the machine sbort. On arrival of machinery from Philadelphia, the various tools and lathes were set up in the shafts constructed from the box in which the mpe!hinery had been shined. E. F. Perkins was first superintendent of motive power and machinery: A T. Stevens the first general master mechanic'; 'George D. Welsh the first division master mechanic. Page Sixtcess For many years Rocklin was che terminal point on the Sacramento Division, and was a particularly active point during the construction days of the Central Pacific. The picture taken in 1863, before the line was opened throu h to Ogden, shows the roundhouse and one of the little engines on the turntable. I he wood piled-in the reground was used for locomotive fuel. The division terminal was moved from Rocklin to Roseville in i9o8. vehemently by a San Francisco supervisor, H. De la Montanya. For an interesting example of public controversey in the, early sixties, read these opening sentences of the Montanya answer: . A pamphlet entitled the 'Dutch Flat Swindle,' containing among other pettifogging statements equally baseless the minority report of J. H. Rogers, one of the Board of Supervisors of Placer County, having been recently published and extensively circulated, would seem to demand some notice from the friends of the Pacific Railroad. The author very prudently conceals his name, as few citizens in the state would voluntarily peril their reputation as truthful and honorable men by signing a publication containing so many gross misrepresentations, demogogue insinuations, wilful fabrications and unmitigated slanders. The people in Placer County voted in favor of the subscription. A campaign even more bitter was waged in San Francisco but in spite of the opposition of many interests and the entire press, the voters on May 25, 1863, authorized the issuance of bonds to the amount of $1,000,000, NOTE 28-There was just enougli truth in this report to make it dangerous. Runtington, Crocker, Hopkins and Stanford, anxious to tap the rich freight business of Nevada, had purchased a wagon road Which had been con, structed part of the way between Virginia City and Dutch Flat. The associates completed the road into Dutch Flat. On the eastern end it connected with other wagon roads, serving different sections of Neva a. Governor Stanford told the Pacific Railway Commission all about it: When we went into the enterprise, he said ' we thought it would be a good property an,1 at that time it was a necessity to the Central Pacific because, as the road went up the mountains, there was no wagon road from the railroad to Virginia City to take freight from the end of the railroad. Without the wagon road the railroad could not have done this Nevada linsiness, which at that time was very important. It was not a paying investment because the railroad was constructed so rapidly over the mountains that, after two seasons, the wagon road was no longer of service as an adjunct to the Central Pacific and was given by the Big Four to the counties through which it passed. $600,000 to the Central Pacific and $400,000 to the Western Pacific, in return for capital stock of the two roads. The interests opposed to the rail road were able to delay action and finally to effect a compromise where by instead of subscribing for Central Pacific stock San Francisco made an outright donation to the Central Pa cific of $400,000 in municipal bonds and $250,000 to the Western Pacific. Money Delayed Even after the compromise had been agreed on, those opposed to the railroad were able by various devices to delay payment and repeatedly to, throw the matter into the courts. The bonds were finally turned over in April, 1865, two years after, the voters had given the necessary authority and after litigation which cost the Central Pacific more than $100,000. Of the bonds thus received by the Central Pacific 315 were sold at $751.60, bringing in $236,754. The remaining 85 of the bonds were dis posed of at par in payment for rolling stock. The aid granted the Western Pacific was before that company had been acquired by the Central Pacific and didn't benefit the Central Pacific. In the meantime Crocker had been going ahead steadily with the con struction. Lack of money had coin pelled him to cut the working forces i to a minimum but the actual work never stopDed. It was characteristic of the Big Four that from the day E ground was broken until the last spike was driven, every day showed some progress in the construction of the road. If they lacked the means to employ 500 men they employed 100, if they could not employ 100 they em ployed 10. They kept their obliga tions under control at all times and limited their cutting strictly to the amount of cloth at their disposal. Don't keep a man at work whom you can't pay regularly at the end of the month. We won't stop work but nto Union of Octobe 26Nol8TE 29--- Sacra me e 64. credits authorship of pamphlet to onr Horace Dawes. st C S, f] b d e s s d et t April, r927 J if we can pay only one man we'll employ only one was their rule. CHAPTER XIII. First Equipment Placed on Rails. Central Pacific Begins Operation as a Railroad. First Revenue. While Crocker was driving the construction the locomotives and cars shipped from the east in knocked down condition were beinz put together at the Sacramento shops. The Sacramento Union of November 7, 1863, under the heading Steam Up has this item: Yesterday afternoon Steam was gotten uD in the locomotive Governor Stanford at the foot of I Street. The engine could not be set in motion because it has not yet been placed on the track. On Monday morning it is expected to go to work hauling iron over the track. November 10 the Union notes the starting of the first locomotive on the Central Pacific. To celebrate it a salute was fired of thirty-five guns from a new twelve-pounder bought by W. Siddons. At that time two miles of track had been laid. It had been intended that a delegation of State officers, bankers, editors and other prominent citizens should be given the first ride but the small boys of Sacraniento beat the dignitaries to it and when the Governor Stanford puffed into view the locomotive was ii-ierely the core supporting a wriggling mass of cheering youngsters. Something went wrong with the machinery when the dignitaries got aboard and their trip did not take place. By 8 o'clock at night, however, the locomotive was in full working order and made a number of trips as far as 16th Street, crowded with cheering passengers. The Sacramento Union of December 4,1863,criticised the announcement in a Kansas newspaper that 40 miles of the eastern division of the Pacific railroad (Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western Railroad or Kansas Pacific) had been graded and that the road is going towards tbe Pacific at the rate of a mile a day. The Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western Railroad was authorized to build, as part of the Pacific Railroad, from the Missouri River at the mouth of the Kansas River as far east as the 100th-meridian. It was absorbed later by the Union Pacific. As a matter of fact ground for the Union Pacific had just been broken at Omaha. It took all the money in the treasury to pay for the celebration and it was almost a year later, after the Pacific Railroad Act had been amended, before construction on the Union Pacific actually began. The Union seems to have had an inkling of this. Read this: In California something handsome has been done in getting the Pacific Railroad under -,vay but we do not pretend to be pushing ahead as they profess to be doing in Kansas. Within a dozen miles or so the railroad company here is compelled to begin the ascent of the dreaded Sierra Nevada. The heavy and costly work here is encountered at the very start. Here we must transport iron and rolling stock some 20,000 miles, but even in the face of these difficulties the Central Pacific has ,-I.pril, 1927 SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN SIMEN BECOMES CITY TICKET AGENT AT SAN FRANCISCO Robert J. Simen city ticket agent taking the posi tion made vacant by the death of L. W. Austin. He entered the serv ice as operator and ticket clerk at Marysville in 1907 and trans ferred to Sacra mento as opera tor in January, 1912. He w as promoted to chief Robert J. Sinicn clerk and cashier at Sacramento in October, 1914, and during tbe following year transferred to San Francisco as ticket clerk. He has been assistant agent at the city ticket office since January, 1924. within eleven months purchased iron and rolling stock for 70 miles, the grading is finished for 18 rniles, a splendid bridge built over the American River, iron is laid for a mile beyond the bridge and by the first of January, 1864, unless iron on shipboard is detained beyond all calculation, the road will be in running condition 18 miles. (Continued Next Month) has been appointed at San Francisco, HISTORIC OLD IRONSIDES TO BE RESTORED TO GLORY A nation-wide campaign is now under way to raise sufficient funds to restore the old Frigate Constitution, better known as Old Ironsides to original condition. This gallant old Frigate, America's first warship, which fought 42 engagements and never lost one, is still afloat but in a sad state of decay at the Charleston Navy Yard, Boston. This inove has been authorized by an act of Congress empowering the Secretary of Navy to raise tbe funds. A masterpiece has been painted by Gordon Grant showing the historic vessel in full sail and in all its glory at sea. Reproductions of this painting in ten colors, size 17x2l inches, are being distributed at 25 cents each, proceeds from these sales going into the Save Old Ironsides Fund. The pictures are obtained from Rear Admiral Andrews, U. S. Navy, Cbairinan National Committee, Boston Navy Yard. FORTUNE IS LOST AND FOUND ON S. P. FERRY BOATS Mateless gloves, to the number of two or three hundred a month, together with adding machines, baby buggies, diamond rings and cold cash were among the numerous articles left on the Company's ferry boats on San Francisco Bay during the past twelve months and worth in all approximately $100,000, according to Captain C. F. Heath, superintendent of the Steamer Division. An infant child was left on the ferrv boat one morning, the mother discovering the loss after the boat had departed for its return trip acro SS the bay. Baby, in care of a stewardess, made the round trip and was returned to its mother none the worse for the adventure. Most costly of the lost articles, probably aside from the infant, was a woman's handbag containing nearly $50,000 in jewelry, cash and securities found by Deckhand Jose D. Cepo on the Santa Clara and returned to its owner within a few hours. The owner took her loss quite calmly and seemed confident the bag would be returned. She was less excited than an entomologist who walked off one of the boats leaving behind him a box containing his ten-years' collection of strange bugs and beetles. On rainy days anywhere from a dozen to thirty umbrellas are left on the ferry boats. If the lost article bears a name or address' the owner is telephoned or written to. Almost all lost articles, with exception of the many odd gloves, are eventually returned to the owners. SEVEN TEAMS IN BASEBALL LEAGUE AT SAN FRANCISCO San Francisco baseball fans are turning their attention to the league recently organized composed of six teams from var . IOUs floors of the General Office and a team from the Distri c t Auditor's office in Annex C. Arrangements for the games are being managed by Larry Anderson, of the Freight Protection Department. First games were played March 12, Scores were as follows. First week-6th Floor 9, 5th Floor 5; Dis. And. 14, 3rd Floor 9; 4th Floor 9, 10th Floor 2. Second week-5th Floor 16, 7th Floor 5; 4th Floor 14, Dis. And. 3; 3rd Floor 14, 10th Floor 5. Lineups of the teams are as follows: District Auditor's - McBride, McKellips, Rudolph, Swartz, Tallman, Brown, Walsh, Gomez, Pine, Brown, Guerra, Crane, Underhill, Mattos (Mgr.), S. Day. 10th Floor-Armitage, Darnell, Gibson, Hadley, Hineke, James, Kerri, McCurgar ' McGough, Michaels, Porter, Sweeney, Ulrich, Van Zandt, Carmichael (Mgr.). 5th Floor-Corven, Gendron (Mgr.) Cal e Garlick, Lyons, McCarthy, Railloff, O'Colnor: Milme, Rathaus, Swift, Madden, Kelly, Maurer, Wickman. 4th Floor-Potts (I%Igr.), Ends, Studdart, Boccabella, Swantner ' Watts, Bari-on, Siillivan, Wahline, Hundricks, Bacci, Seib, Meany. 7th Floor-Preund, Nelson, Collins. Freeman (Mgr.), Liotta, A. Anderson, Puccinelli, . Anderson, Calder, Werner, Price, Skate, Fallgatter, Quin. 3rd Floor-Aarrington, Terrano, Boyle, McDermott, Boncbero (Mgr.) Murphy, Lea1y, Hansen, Cooney, Tuttle, bowen, Hurley, Conde, Clark, Leake. 6th Floor-Anderson (M.~r.). Ahern, Killian, Adams, Bonfilli. Kelly, Tilton, Teeters, Olsen, Kopke, Kluepher, V. Collins, Cordova, B. Collins, Fountain. Negro Caller at Hospital: , I came to see how mah fren' Joe Brown was gettin' along.'' Nurse: Why he's getting along fine; he's convalescing now. Negro: Well I'll just sit down and wait till he's throiigh.--Brockton Call. WATSONVILLE AGENT GIVES POETIC ANSWER TO CRITIC ~knswerhig a critic who complained of the noise made by a busy switch engine shunt.ing cars about the yard. R. H. Davis, agent at Watsonville, recently published the following answer in the Pajaronian : I h~ardy know what I can say, That help you out in any way. Mo r 't people when they go to bed, Put out the light a nd bag their head And dream sweet dreams till morning light, If all the day they've done what's right. And I'll say this to you, my dear, We'll speak out loud so all may hear, If you were fed with coal and oil, Until they made the water boil, And had men climbing o'er your back, And send vou racing down the track, Until you hit a string of flats, You'd ding and dong and ring the bell, And tell the world to go to h-. Page Seventeeil (Continued froin last munih) THE Central Pacific reached Roseville February 29, 1864. Ther~ it connected with the CaliforniaCentral Railroad and within two months started to operate as a railroad.30 The Sacramento Union of April 26, 1864, tells this story: The first trip over the Pacific Railroad for the purpose of carrying passengers was made yesterday. The company had advertised to run at stated hours and accordingly at 6.15 o'clock the locomotive Governor Stanford with a number of passengers left the foot of J Street. The time made by yesterday's train was: from Sacramento to Folsom, 26 miles, 59 minutes; from Folsom to Sacramento 50 minutes; from Sacramento to Roseville, 18 miles, 39 minutes; from Roseville to Sacramento 33 minutes. In the annual report of 1864 may be found the official record of the Central Pacific Railroad Cornpany's first activities. E. H. Miller, Jr., secretary of the company, notes that the track was completed from Sacramento to Roseville April 26, 1864, and that from that date trains were run daily over the 18 miles of road. He continued: Little freight, however, passed over the road until the 10th of the following June when it was opened to Newcastle, 31 miles from Sacramento, and regular freight and passenger trains commenced running to that point. NOTE 30-The California Central, which was operated as part of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, was incorporated April 21, 1857. Construction commenced May 1858. Road bed graded to five miles north of Lincoln, 23Y2 miles, where work closed down account lack of funds. Road completed to Lincoln October 1861. Section from Folsom to Roseville abandoned 1868. NOTE 31-11cre is the text of an advertisenient -and timetable published when the road reached Newcastle: CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD This new and popular railroad is now com-q nleted to Newcastle, tliirtv-one miles from Sacramento, and with its connecting railroads and stage lines affords the cheapest, best and most expeditious route fortravelers to Wallice, Reese River, Humboldt, and all parts Of California. north of the South Fork of the American River. The road is constructed in the most substantial manner. and is nrovided with new first-class passenger cars, which run with a smoothness not excelled by any other road in the United States. It is laid among the foothills. affording delightful views of-valley and mountain scenery. Travelers will find every convenience to promote their comfort. Fer The passenger revenue from April 26, 1864, to April 30, during which time 298 passengers were carried was $054.25. This was the first 1~~oney earned by the Central Pacific as a railroad. From April 26 until the end of November, 1864, 48,941 passengers were carried. The total passenger revenue was $63,403.15. For freight during the same period the company received $38,666.89, with an additional $1,487.50 for the transportation of express matter and messengers. The total operating expenses for that period was $56,289.17, making the net earnings $47,268.37. The total passenger train mileage was 14,016 and the freight mileage sons taking the early morning train at Sacrainento, on arrival at Neweastle,,take the California Stage Co.'s coaches, a. traveling by the new Dutch Flat wagon road. will reach Virginia City in at least six hours less time than by any other route, and will also avoid t he dangerous precipices which have so long been a terror to travelers. They will also have an opportunity of viewing some of the most romantic mountain and lake scenery in the world, inhaling the cool breezes, perfumed by the fragrant pine and balsam, and seeing grand forests of the towering firs and pines of California. The road borders Donner-Lake, a sheet of water of crystal purity. reflecting the snow-capped summits of the surrounding Sierras. among. which it lies embosomed. six thousand feet above the level of the sea. This new route has been opened at immense 'expense, and stages and teams are -apidly availing themselves of its unequaled advantages. The line of the Pacific Railroad, that great national hiRbway. is located u,-.on this route, and. the extension of the 5OTk, which is progressing rapidly, is an interesting feature t O~ ravelers. In a few months. 23 TpileS More wi be added to the railroad. which will still further incr,~ase its advantages of speed. comfort and safety to travelers who try the new railroad. which is destined to be the great highway between the Pacific and Atlantic states. Leave the Depot at the Steamboat Landing at the foot of K Street. as follows: Leave Arrive at Sacramento at 6:15 a.m.. . Newcastle 7:30 a. in. Sacramento at 1:00 p.m... Newcastle 3:10 p.m. Sacramento at 5:30 p.m.... Newcastle 7:30 p.m. THE DOWN TRAIN Leave Arrive at Newcastle at 6:30 a.m..Sacramentc, 8:00 a.m. Newcastle at 10:15 a.m..Sacramento 11:45 a.m. Newcastle at 5:30 p.m.. Sacramento 7:30 p in. Passengers for Marysville and towns north, change cars at the junction and take stages at Lincoln. Passengers by the train leaving Sacramento at 6:15 a.m. on reaching Newcast le will find stages for Auburn, Grass 17alley, Nevada, San Tuan. Forest City. Downieville, Illinois town 1)utch Flat. Steamboat Springs, VirRinia City' Forest Hill, Iowa Hill, and all intermediate towns. Passengers from any of these places, by taking stages to Newcastle, will arrive at Sacramento at 12 in.. one hour before the departure.of the San Francisco steamers. C. CROCKER, Supt C.P.R.R. Sacramento July 15, 1864. 9 19,468 miles. The average speed of passenger trains including stoppages, 22 miles an hour, the average speed of freight trains including stoppages 153/2 miles an hour. But one accident marred the first seven months of operation. Frank Brady, an employe of the company, in attempting to get on a construction train in motion was injured so as to cause his death in a few days. The men who built the Central Pacific soon developed definite ideas as to how a road should be operated. The rules and regulations for employes issued at the time Central Pacific began to operate as a railroad emphasize the spirit of service and stress the importance of carefulness. NOTE 32-Following extracts are from rules and regulations for employes in effect 1868: . The clock of G. M. Parker, 34 K Street is the time by which trains are to be run. Iffonductors and Enginernim will compare their Watches with it daily, when practicable. No person employed on trains, or at Stations, will leave his place or change with another without permission from the Supelintendent or Train Master. West bound trains will have the right to the track against East bound trains until they are twenty-five minutes behind their card time, after which they will lose all their right to the track. East bound trains will wait twenty-five mimiteb for West bound trains, after which they will have the right t:; the track indefiniteIv, against West bound trains, keeping twentyfive minutes behind their card time at each succeeding station until the expected train is met. Always allow five minutes for variation of watches, but the five minutes so allowed must not be used for running. If a train cannot reach a station on time to meet anoher. all the necessary precautions must be taken to prevent accidents. Through Freight trains will keep entirely out of the way of both Passenger and Through Freight trains. Passenger Trains will not run faster than twenty-five miles an hour, except on special order, over any part of the road, and Freight Trains ten miles an hour East of the junction, and twelve miles an hour West of the Junction. In case of accident or stoppage upon the, main track, from any cause, conductors must always, and immediately, station men with red flags by day, or -red lights by night, and, as an extra precaution, if foggy or storming, two torpedoes must be clasped to the rails, half a miles distant in both directions, and have no Tight to assume that there are no trains approaching from either direction. Special care must also be taken in case a train gets behini time and liable to be overtaken by p following train, to guard against accident. Disabled cars left at Stations must be reported to Train Master. Enginemen and Firemen are particularly directed not to throw any wood from the Tender while in motion.. If any wood is found too large for use it should be thrown off at the next Station. Wood must not be piled on Tender% in such a manner or quantity as to be liable to fall off. ~If~ 41~~, the.p~OMP . t tg,-~W M., _prs _$iW ~%r- d- dihj~ in the' ,-,4nd V jtailr6. 4~,to p e., ir- er7. ftfehto_~~' alley M, 4cervi e. o azo, 7 __Vi T ~_j -d -- --_-~;* _t_-- I- -,t -- a-a 1,14 Is -ani, as no rpa gq At 9 laftib4,4; M t 16 186V,A~And;-- C' San 6rvil I 6~jz-b Ong 6jfipleted - to I or i e car that'-way ks --,railroad, to '-, .the.' _highw~ U d, a ~,xiewf '_V - I I - - ~- ,.,,craxnei~ o ....,a eyj:~Nj _T, Mp.any,~ jn 6. h- h--b W~ - is ~e ~-_ n const' -1, evAda Via'Strawbeft- Valley'.-.,,.--.,T-h -ega ruc7 e 'sa e-4 AN is ory about2--th kn` rft in,--, furnpike h t R04, Was -b t~ d A as,.,,,, e, -,equippe _st H the an th ~inie .. - _ - _!~s. _ 6o I an ed 7, -~tis d':San 'J68e~'but-~,t~'Ufiit -'State€.- -~-It sli-Inkle-d - In , t f rIg e OrE, -.The- last effort of ~ t eir opporierits not in dhjuhifti6fi A&7catef A in 6 ii t-6---idbi nk-' th e ~ f o o th i I I s a s t 6 f th 'w'-fa S ,in a d e th r 6 u -h t h e N ev a d a -Le g i s I a t u re, f-33 River and'-br-an-ch horth,and MM , -stigated by the friends of the Placerville route -Qift M-, -~k en b, V, erican hes6 ~D!6neer -,r i s t sing, t rough Plac N&I h er and SUt-- - 'That body ordered in 1865 an, investigation Irs I oil h s~ h mto,t e plans, prospects and promises' of t e e ing- er Coun le h X roa -Aifid M untain City in Yuba '.spM- th --very ---lik - t' t* s1o o e th 6 ration from- Sacr 'e di 'b F b- amento and Newcastle, 'a :t ing,jegan distance, of thirty-ohe miles, and the S F.,. XV . ~,~6ko- and Washbe railroad oin o€ton -With ir fcorrimittee i- ~Qves~sei -,qrrjved:'f r 'B ' found- in its' 0 on repqrt:,,onf --t'e -C WV' th67'r,~CAl Wu8t track b' efitral Tacific -progres c -The- -, __ _ . ~ - ~ , that its slow s was~occa -I -,OrPIA, aying egan. r pioned bra by the shortage of coii 6trdul rs,, ,'_A_'pldtforfii'cars V I ~'d bin-the ere p ace n n a g premium on -gold had. driven --it 17 -10, a€t to such,an,extent to. make fit almo~t 6 y I -A - ' 61d 1, ~ ~, ~ I S ~_Ygus s neoesIf t US, 5 5 tniber':61 ekcuisionists were 06sgible for the company to secure 9 ~4ff, u49W:Ahe: fiflf:.~ ~ !;'-~ ~z - .1 11 1 -fi * - - _c in:in, Suf- j ore Auring t e out froiA acrarnento~thdt - the - action -of the -San Francisco -Super & CSItWiti -f d H cient. Sums to 'carry on t e work, - --Secor i'd, an h h -dall I daYs 6fX6r_ a-, head for the -round trip. ~-Vhe' _-visor~ in holding- up $60 r itrdl, Padific -,cons rue 0,000 in bonds voted ,~aS ~Lppene :, o -them' by Popular election, had not brily. Ii _d i '_F I nan h 'd them - but- had' 1 _~-aff ted ad o som,, tw-d ty- ,56Wly enibarrasse a socc F b, omil ruary,~.,26,1856. -the ejf A, prqje~ct.,~ agie _.rst,,,,railrqg tat U,ru,. ,t eir.~securities. _Third;',that-,. qjTia.,__-w4s,--a df~a_ Ine -fi6in ~-Sdn MTR --- en 'tiat built Ahe jirst.Xili ' I cu ty in securing material and equiprnt~nt L Ale M a nsequenc o S ornia.4a, I!bhd-Aa6ked-_.t e.'-: a ci 1~ greatly an the h c . f th6'.-Civil War had delayed largely increased . eir ex e. e ~promo ei, I fln n a d -of Ahe, I. L ~ cro€€,the;top several railroad enterprises across the Sierra T the re ~Wer&e N da. he committee reported r _6 ~-.,ru es a th * 'I' lit u . two 4__.,.ls_eg,en t t~-_ r,~W i~ b, lines,'the Central Pafcific~ built and Th~p ore u a was roug West ed_-th-t th I k -1 . ~ - 11 . - , 1, f ~ 6f- the builders 'of the - Ce n- - e 4 is,-i e All'Uh Q,,, , - Percep lot! ~pehs6s-., ~-,Toueth~ Ahe death of.-th ir Chief -, E er ear y ', , .1 n--, ~s,t -tim h __.gineer, ~Theodore Judah ByAhe, tec-t . ey, reaAe twithstaridi ther , A MON ~,4M - r,eh ire i-~-h'pitdl all oilhi., t ~ c6inpany,mas qon ifientA Ii- _rosecuting'the w.rk:.wIth absolute good Jaith 'i ne ted ji, fid:the' sbl~-' d all _' ible vigor bukip-tib fis es- Was -in-1850 iii'd Pos ailr6dd-Uat--, O-Uld V -k 2436 t-too all their ng !to one of the, &44~,_j _ - - - - - - shl o e toad, 'ac66',di _---earnfingsl A A bt made -before the Nevada Legislature, t as the , activity-':of . 'ften 'millionaires izied ~,fbrtunesffiv6u , Id ~n&`suffice to ,zhisdg, ~4huck le on 0 i 4 May, 1927 SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN' with merchandise and machinery. In 1863 the tolls on the new road out from Placerville amounted to $300,000 and the freight bills to more than $13,000,000. There was substantial ground, therefore, for Placerville's hope fgr a railroad to connect the rest of the state with her radiating wagon roads. In 1863-1864, however, Collis P. Huntington and his associates built a wagon road from Dutch Flat into Carson Valley for the purpose of diverting Placerville traffic to their own road and to forestall another attempt to connect Placerville with the Sacramento Valley Railroad. Big Four Maneuver It was intended by certain Eldorado people to build such a line and then extend it through Johnson Pass to Virginia City but the maneuver of the Big Four made it impossible for the Eldorado venture to carry on. A company was formed in January, 1863, and a road was built to Shingle Springs, a distance of twenty-seven miles. Work stopped there and it was not until 1888 that Placerville was connected by rail with Sacramento. The history of the Placerville road casts a revealing light on the value of the personal equation. Behind this smaller venture was probably as much money as the builders of the Central Pacific could have raised. In 1866 the Placerville and Sacramento Valley Railroad was given by Congress land grant aid identical to that given the Central Pacific in the Act of 1862, conditional on completion of the road to Virginia City within a given time. The Central Pacific's land grant was conditional on completion of the road within specified limits and the road was built seven years ahead of time. The Placerville and Sacramento Valley Railroad failed to meet the conditions and the land specified in the grant was restored to public domain. The Western Pacific railroad (no connection with the present railroad of that name) was incorporated December 13, 1862, to build from San Jose to Sacramento to connect there with the Central Pacific. Construction was delayed until January, 1865, after the aid in the way of land grants voted by Congress to the Central Pacific for such a line had been transferred to the Western Pacific. The incorporators of the Western Pacific were: Timothy Darne, Richard Chenery, Emery T. Pease, George H. Bodfish, Charles Dero, Erastus S. Holden, Alex H. Houston. Capital stock $5,400,000. Reached San Francisco Bay The Western Pacific was consolidated November 2, 1869, with the San Francisco Bay Railroad Company, which bad twenty-two and a half miles of track. It was over the Western Pacific lines, via Melrose and the Oakland Ferry, that the Central Pacific finally reached San Francisco. Until the completion of the Western Pacific, passengers on the Central Pacific reached San FrVcisco by steamboat from Sacramento. The rail line to San Francisco via Melrose was opened September 8, 1869, and via Oakland and Alameda, Dec. 1, 1869. SAM S. MONTAGUE He was chief engineer of the Central Pacific during the early construction period, succeeding Theo. D. Judah, and carrying to completion the dreams of that railroad pioneer. Montague was in turn suc ceeded by William Hood, who was in charge of most of the early construction work of the present South . Srn Pacific lines. Western Pacific was consolidated with Central Pacific June 23, 1870. The San Francisco and San Jose road was consolidated with the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, October 12, 1870. CHAPTER XV How Central Pacific Builders Lost a Mild Winter and San Francisco Missed a Lot of Valuable Business. First Chinese Employed. THOSE responsible for the de lays in payment of state and county aid hurt not only the railroad, but the Pacific Coast. The winter-of 1864-1865 was one of un usual mildness and with the funds that bad been voted, but which un friendly influences had been able to keep tied up in a tangle of litigation, the builders of the Central Pacific would have been able to make im portant headway with the mountain construction, the speed of which de pended so rnuch on the elements. They had the iron for 50 miles of the road but could not do the necessary grading because of lack of funds. They did take advantage of the mildness of the winter to construct a wagon road over the summit, which served later to handle freight by wagon into Nevada from the end of the track before the railroad crossed the mountains. But the heavy and costly construction of the railroad right-of-way was out of the question. Governor Stanford told the Pacific Railroad Commission in 1888 that but for the opposition which kept from them money that had been voted to them, they could have put on the job enough men to take full advantage of the mild winter and we would more easily have met the Union Pacific at Cheyenne than we did at Promontory. This, he pointed out, would have given San Francisco control of the business of Utah, Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. The force at work in the mountains was increased in December, 1864, to 300 men. On January 1 1 1865, the prospect for a speedy close of the war, favorable decisions by the State Supreme Court in various matters which had been in litigation, placed the affairs of the company in a much more desirable position. The first Federal aid bad been earned and fifty miles of the line was in operation. To many this ready-money relief from long continued financial strain would have been an invitation to sit back and take a long breath. The builders of the Central Pacific, however, accepted it as an athlete welcomes that ease of respiration which he calls his second wind. The moment fresh resources became available construction was speeded up and maintained at a pressure high and constant. This increased the need for money to such an extent that in spite of all the new and favorable conditions it required unabated effort to keep the treasury sufficiently supplied to carry on the work. They still had the worst and most costly part of the line to build. They still had to transport all their material around Cape Horn. They had many trials, difficulties and obstacles to overcome in crossing the Sierra. As an early writer put it, They had to encounter law suits, opposition, ridicule, evil prophesies, losses; had to organize a vast laboring force, drill long tunnels, shovel away in one spring sixty feet of snow over seven miles of the line merely to get at the roadbed; had to set up sawmills by the dozens in the mountains, haul half a dozen locomotives and iron for 20 miles of track 26 miles over the mountains by ox teams; haul water 40 and wood 20 miles for the construction trains on the alkali plains. Courage of Builders Surely there is something admirable in the courage of four country merchants, ignorant of railroad building and unknown to the world, assurn,ng such a load as the support of 800 men for a year out of their own pockets for an enterprise in the -uccess of which in their hands very few of their own friends believed. The secret of their success was that these four country merchants meant, in good faith, to build a railroad. They did not expect to get money out of an enterprise before they had put money of their own into it. They managed all the details as carefully and prudently as they were accustomed to manage the hardware or dry goods business. They were honest men. When Huntington began to buy iron and machinery in New York people flocked to him to sell, and there is a story of sorneone who came with an offer of a handsome commission to Huntington if he would deal with him. 'I want all the commissions I can get,' was the reply, 'but I want them put in the Page Elevets Conductor J. F. Gimlin left, and Engineer T. J. Cole. veterans of the Salt Lake Division who handle the combination train which run,, u f Brigham. Utah, three times a week over the old original line of the Coenttrol Pacific around the north end of Great Salt Lake. They are standing by the monument at Promontory which marks the spot where the last spikewas driven by Governor Leland Stanford on May to. 186(. connecting the Central Pacific and Union Pacific in the first transcontinental railroad. bill. This road has got to be built without any stealings,27 Meanwhile a decision of great importance to the company had been made by President Lincoln. By the terms of the Pacific Railroad Act the company was to receive a loan in bonds to the amount of $16,000 per mile for its line west of the base of the Sierra and $48,000 per mile for the 150 miles east of that point. This tripling of the aid was because of the extraordinary cost of mountain construction. Lincoln Decides The Department of the Interior suggested that the base of the Sierra or beginning of the $48,000 a mile construction began at the end of the first 50-mile section. The California Supreme Court, however, had decided that the foothills of the Sierra began 31 miles from Sacramento. It devoIved upon President Lincoln to niake the final decision as to where the increased payment would begin. He decided that it should be 7.18 miles east of Sacramento. In making the decision he expressed his belief. in the importance of the Pacific Railroad as a national undertaking and declared that he welcomed this opportunity to give the enterprise every benefit the law would permit Here is a case, he said, in whicK Page Twelve - SOUTREP-N PACIFIC BtJLLPT19 Abraham's faith has moved mountains. This decision meant a difference of more than $1,000,000 in the amount advanced by the government to the coinpany. More men were put to work as rapidly as the money to pay them became available. April saw the force grown to 1200, June to 2000, and before July was over there were 4000 men at work. It was after passingAuburn in the early part of 1865 that the first Chinese were ernployed on the Central Pacific construction. First Chinese Here's why: Shovel and pick and black powder were the only aids to grading in those days and horsepower meant horses in person. Speedy construction under such conditions required the employment of many men and there was nothing scarcer in California in 1865 than labor. Such white workers as were not employed on ventures of their own found it more profitable or more congenial to work in the mines or engage in agricultural pursuits than to face the hardships of carving a railroad right-of-way up the steep slopes of the Sierra. Samuel S. Montague, then acting chief engineer, in his annual report for 1865 said: It became apparent early in the season that the amount of labor likely to be required during the summer could only be supplied by the employment of the Chinese element of our population. Some distrust was at first felt regarding the capacity of this class for the services required but the experiment has proved eminently successful. They are faithful and industrious and, under proper supervision, soon become skillful in the performance of their duty. Many of them are becoming very expert in drilling, blasting and other departments of rock work.1115 NOTE 35-Without the Chinese the construction of the Central Pacific would have been impossible in anything like the time in which the work was done. Governor Stanford held the Chinese workers in such high esteem that he provided in his will for the permanent employment of a large number. Some of these are still living and working lands now owned by Stanford University. The Chinese have been described as the Asiatic contingent of the Grand Army of Civilization. More than 10,000 of them were brought across the Pacific to fill the ranks of labor on the railroad. They were brought here not because they were cheap but because It was Charles Crocker who conceived the idea of employing Chinese. J. H. Strobridge, superintendent of construction, opposed the plan and only gave in after a series of trials demonstrated the worth of the celestial worker. Crocker insisted t hat the race that had built the great wall of China coSld certainly be useful -in building a railroad. Strobridge finally agreed to try fifty Chinese. They did so well he employed fifty more. Before the road was finished there were about 12,000 on the payroll. As the Chinese increased in numbers and skill the ascent of the summit, in spite of increasing difficulties, became more speedy. (To be continued next inontlt) they filled a want that otherwise would have been. left unsatisfied. Strobiidge, in spite of his reluctance to accept Chinese labor, pronounced them the best in the world. He said: They learn quickly, do not fight, have no strikes that amount to anything. and are very cleanly in their habits. They will gamble and do quarrel among themselves most noisily-but harmlessly. The Chinese on the Central Pacific were divided into little groups. Each group had a cook who not only prepared their meals but was required to have a large boiler of hot water each night so that when the Chinese came off the grade they could fill their little tubs made from powder kegs and take a hot sponge bath. This bath and change of clothes was a regular thing every night before they took their evening meal. Here is what Governor Stanford in a report made to Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, October 10, 1865, had to say about the Chinese: As a class they are quiet, peaceable, patient, industrious and economical. Ready and apt to learn all the different kinds of work required in railroad building, they soon become as efficient as white laborers. More prudent and economical, they are contented with less wages. We find them organized into societies for mutual aid and assistance. These societies can count their numbers by thousands, are conducted by shrewd, intelligent business men who promptly advise their subordinates where employment can be found on most favorable terms. No system similar to slavery, serfdom or peonage prevails among these laborer . The ir wages, which are always paid in coin each month, are divided among them by their agents who attend to their business according to labor done by each person. These agents are generally American or Chinese merchants who furnish them their supplies of food, the value of which they deduct from their monthly pa ~We have assurances from lead ing Chinese merchants that, under the just and liberal policy pursued by the company, it will be able to procure during the next year not less than 15,000 laborers. With this large force the company will be able to push on the work so as not only to complete it far within the time required by the Acts of Congress but so as to meet the public impatience. It is interesting to note how much more nearly the diet of the Chinese conformed with modern ideas than did the food of the white workers. The fact that the company handled the importation of Chinese supplies gave an excellent opportunity to jud.Le their method of life in this regard. The Chinese bill-of-fare included dried oysters, dried cuttlefish, sweet rice crackers, dried bamboo sprouts, salted cabbage, sugar, four kinds of dried fruit, five kinds desiccated vegetables, vermicelli, dried seaweed, Chinese bacon, dried abalone, peanut oil, dried mushrooms, tea, rice, pork, poultry. The white laborers bill-of-fare was made up of beef, beans, bread, butter, potatoes. The white laborers, on the grade, relieved their thirst with water which was not always the best and which at times. in spite of all precautions, was a source of sickness. The Chinese drank lukewarm tea. This tea, beside the grade. was in thirty- and forty-gallon whiskey barrels and always on tap. Several times a day a Chinese mess attendant would bring fresh tea and pour it into the big barrel. These rein forcements of the beverage were carried in powder kegs, suspended across a Celestial shoulder on each end of a bamboo pole. i , SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN (Cositinued froin lait inonth) THE Central Pacific was built and operating to Clipper Gap, 43 miles from Sacramento, in June 1865.' It was not until July 10, 1865, that the first rail was laid on the Union Pacific. September, 1865, the Central PaIcific was open to Colfax, 55 miles from Sacramento, and the construction forces, growing in numbers daily, were swarming over the steep places still to be conquered between there and the summit. Grading above Colfax began August 1, 1865, and before the end of the year the battle with the Sierra was on in earnest. The increase in the working force made it possible to extend the line of operations to the very summit. Camps were established at all the tunnels and heavy points. Work was begun at both ends of the summit tunnel. The elements, which had been so kind the previous winter, when lack of money made it impossible to work on a large scale, now joined the forces oZ opposition. Snow in the mountains stopped work on the tunnels; NOTE 36-From Secretary's Report of November 25 1865 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. may June yuly Aug. Sept. Oct. heavy rains made the roads below the snow lines impassable for wagons. Supplies for the men at work on the grades had to be transported by pack trains. End of the track was at Colfax. Passengers for Virginia City made the journey from Colfax by stage. This winter, however, the rain converted the clay soils of the foothills into a mire that made staging impossible. One of the stages got stuck in the mud and was left standing in the streets of Gold Run for six weeks. Passengers for Nevada points were carried by saddle train from the railroad at Colfax to Dutch Flat, where the road previously built by the company fun-iislied good footing for the stage horses. At the end of 1865 Chief Engineer Montague was able to report most satisfactory progress in the work of construction. The beginning of the year had found little work completed above Newcastle, excerit the heavy cut atJO&W 44 This cut, just belo`w~` Auburn,' on what is now the westbound track was one of the most tedious jobs of' the early construction. The cut, 85 feet deep and 800 feet long, was through 168.27 305.75 381.37 1170.93 989.47 1121.91 RECEIPTS FROINI JANUARY TO OCTOBER, 1865, INCLUSIVE Wharf Mails Express Passengers Freight $516.66 $ 200.00 $ 4,827.51 $ 5,496.72 516.66 200.00 4_505.25 5,257.64 516.66 200.00 7,404.50 7,209.10 516.66 200.00 7.102.85 572.72 200.00 8,931.10 13,067 , 79 666.66 266.67 11,242.65 19.947.34 700.00 350.00 10,388.75 23,813.26 700.00 350.00 10,758.00 16.268.49 902.22 1000.00 18,926.05 38.484.88 933.33 1000.00 17,597.75 45,272.35 $4.137.68 $6.541.07 $3,966.67 $101 684.41 $197 074.24 Total $11,040.89 10,479.55 15,330.26 20.076.18 22,939.36 32,429.07 35,633 - 38 39,247 -42 60,302 - 62 65,925.34 $313.404.07 OPERATING EXPENSES FROM JANUARY TO OCTOBER, 1865, INCLUSIVE Repairs of Locomotives, including alterations $ 7 564 Repairs of Cars, including alteration Repairs of Track, ordinary and extraordinary Repairs of Bridges. Locomotive service o*o*d-, w*a-te*r,' o'il* Station service (agents, clerks, laborers, etc.) Wharf service Mail transportation Stationery and P7-_-?ting, including Advertising Loss and damage 6 freight Damage to persons and I- iperty Overcharges and Commi6oions on Freight U. S. Revenue Tax Office expenses Train service (Superintendent, Contractors, etc.) Repairs of Buildings Exp 29 82-100 per cent of recei ts ................. ............................ ................... 1 .67 5.942.77 23,378.32 9.38 15,883.87 ......... 18,828.02 2,155.61 400.00 1,533.35 341.12 761.77 2.489.24 5,666.02 619.21 6,850.42 25.00 ensos, $93~448.77 From P - January Ist to May l3th, the trains ran to Newcastle, 31 miles; from May 13tb 0 June l0th. t o Auburn, 36 miles; from June 10th to September 4th, to Clipper Gap, 42 miles, at nd from September 4th to Colfax, 55 miles. This statement shows a gratifying increase of business and verifies the correctness of the estimates made by the Acting Chief Engineer, set forth *.-.i his report of October 8, 1864. J11 e, 1927 a formation of cemented boulders, every foot of which bad to be shot. Black powder, the only explosive help at that period, loosened the formation but little at a time. The steep sides of this rock strait stand today just as the builders of the road left them. The cement that dulled drills and broke picks nearly sixty years ago, shows no more signs NOTE 37- Present facilities a fforded by your road and the connecting stage lines for 'he accommodation of travel across the moun,,ains are unequalled upon any other route. Persons traveling by the Central Pacific Railroad and the Dutch Flat and Donner Lake wagon road reach Virginia City in from 4 to 6 h.. 's I ess time than by any other line. Since the California Stage Company placed their coaches upon this line in July last the average ti!ne for the trips from Sacramento to Vir ginia has been but 17 hours. This road 1863 p,etea which was commenced in and com in June last (1864), is by far the best road yet constructed across the moun. tains. It accomplishes the ascent of the western slope of the Sierra in a much lighter maxinium grade than it has heretofore been deemed possible to attain within the limits of expense which such an enterprise would justify. it is constructed in the best possible manner and is everywhere wide tenough for teams to pass each other withou difficulty. Commodious hotels have been erected along the route and preparations are being made to keep the road open during the winter. (Report Chief Engineer, December 1864.) NOTE 38-This was one of the heaviest pieces of grading on the first division and involved making a cut more than 800 feet in length thrmigh solid cement to a depth of 63 feet. Every' foot of the way through this opening had to be blasted with gunpowder. The grading was completed in 1864. NOTE 39-When mountain construction was at its height moc than 500 kegs of,&wder a day were used L-y the builders. , hen the work began powder cost $2.50 a keg, During the period that the greatest quantity was being used the price advam ed to $15 a keg. in the use of powder as in many other operations connected with building the railroads, the builders had no precedents to guide them and very often a great deal more was used than necessary to do the work. In fact. in a number of cases blasts were so heavy that ma. terial was blown away on which the engineers had depended for fills. In the vicinity of Cisco the rock was so hard that it seemed impossible to drill into it a sufficient depth for blasting purposes. Shot after shot would blow out as if fired from a canon. Nitro-glycerin was invented in 1846. It was not produced commercially until 186.7 (in Sweden) Non e of this was available for use on the dentral Pacific. The builders established a nitro-glycerin fac. torv near the summit tunnel. glvc~rin nitric and sulpburic acids being hauled' by t~am to the factory from Cisco. Some of this nitro, glycerin was used on the Summit tunnel and the two tunnels to the eastward, but its use as abandoned after a disastrous explosion, when Charles Crocker ordered them to bury that stuff. Page Eleven PACIFIC BULLETIN 4 ective Y, ~.And one cured for 'this' _p purpose of four bents power department directed -to -nio :at - Lower Illinois it lrom.'Sacramen-to~__ --th-e-summ; _to ~.Towh. Gap. -',The -engine was' ismantled at rolling ,stock raffiento,-eveiryth ing being taken U'the~_,Centr~l, Pa-' -it 'to liglife th6,weight. ___~ ~~ I -i - ld _Iz 'taken on t R -:to, Go ~ un,, he in( 81fi.~~,~.. at :that t1ine consisted -Of S'I*X 10- ' w I a, h !~,Ah6 track. -TR6 3 t e 'end. 6J f- como ives, six 'first- sAakew t* k d ' - _Whei'l ' -- was Jac e pp~ I-f-t 'h _k-` d one e -use o raveiiiig Jac-1s: P, _--o' ass passenger-ca rs,` nove Sac -from f-,An I ~thdh Wh' W-:1-, r Al tw,6:'S6hbooses, U':-Inches --gj -t IM sy,- t I -A time.~~o,,A, ogging,.,, and express, it ruc cohtfiv-dride b- eet wi'de Whee two f so., designed to -Ahirty-nine ox and is and I _' '- t e~muddy.4oa ds--bf ~the'iai rave h platform' hy ~y t,_ -ve _'~season fter the engine 'dd,be_e ---carsj-.,, -1 ~b ~o'n 'and raced -,The ine in `,bo'lted the tide'k, -~,,,pperation: had- been Olin itched --hi s en ~yo e - f ;_~-jnspecte-d- -that 'year goose, . oxen -and the ~, black, -picked S P-1- ensioner, declaration - ~th t it - - p who got the tale fr a I M--___._., Oln--W, 0 d IssOun h t d ompare Most fa-- e t jin bl Or Y:-, --,~'gPect_ With an` ~1_, Oose S6re~ T__- y rai - eams N-,;~,',it6i&;jnAhe Mile 6. st a Here ----th A - tb`at the-`~`-- ~,~'Dut6h' Tlat'.` ~: - - tat6€ ' nd i1gine re Adbea,Tit n. d --tPNgd- 49~__ first 0;.uSs1hk, -for i`sht~xjiud ~th a~stanip6_die '-of e cause of ~ten-z uct nule team. ;--Anyone familiar -th, _h [~,6 __ knows t; at w hin~ , -, en 'Ahey 'sk ', n-g 0 Ali6y-'usually _fini~sh-tb 's 'taste: mAh a 'lot Of brol in mygugn tnejgLrn9us R th. h -tfai ~-,W6 d pw .P rOm ~_ dat day '.on ~,~th6 .,goose .~rdisO 611 on the r er -of th -dreai acle,passed- d I e und -R4w.- 6-1 gb~ d spect a n- q . s.e X_J n - the `-~bac'k -'count d.` _6 A ry,,an jh kcLI&iron ~ch4its. h treffibling'-,that I ose 0 c oni6tiVe s,, cars ~ 1. ` U U f -an ;ftat!,L~dla -machinery -a emigran rains ::,_9 fe- ~-All of the first rai s -in t -~t- I d -qualiti~'ifidW the'bes :ma en are main aine In o6d Ord, r Y6Ak,',fqiind_T5 miles d g -'her ion com- -The year 1866 found K4 :_P ff, A oll- -'th -Ce tidl Eventhe ~'stake t running: ~ o ~,_.C of e . n Z:~ aci cjn~-a~~,posi ion o an 54' S --t balk a Ahe:zig '-make- h t -a 1` k6 ichle.~~. The 4_mg _a~qr4piq,inb6l aseon, ar in' 1h A a Y, allv -ie8ortdd --d- - of th'2, V's iles b6twe, d I ' d t e - - a rea y', overcome cer ain' 6:k~6-dieii-t',~-o~f-i~'-blindfoldin the g- 'In I 1, . u es iind ---,Dd`t6h_'P t--Vi4i~ o-thirds d and horsesA -at --had ~t eep -,,,','b-yer siteej `jiddes'- Ahey -,,kn6,w Irom o., -pass 7~1~,~,__ *-V e R6 into' MINI biffid that w enever--thd jhe~'dou h ~~'thJ, dd'was tArved vict ries '*on that Id -conquer limpse -they to k c e ~gra 0' , p 1, P h y ~c_a_ug~git g 't t ocomotiV6, Sieria, tji 'V~.?'jjl€o ~~,&n6w - ' - ' pro es ~k 0 Ah6 i s -Jiidk6 -Jfitich -.,progress-_t__,._ 11, - 6t ey Would or e 00 _e: kea'b69t t6~t er- b --f -the d~_ pyon e b' -'th RR J-h lijeh ~J6~i~ 1, h d OaHf6f ore, - K,1~4_. ~ I'll - I ~11 - In TO SOUTHEPIN PACIFIC BULLETIN yond the mountain would be requisi- JOHN STUHR WAS ANOTHER OF tioned to help. SOUTHERN PACIFIC'S 49ERS After crossing the divide above John Stuhr, formerly general car Emigrant Gap the road to Crystal foreman at Ogden, is one of Southern Lake was down grade. Because of Pacific's 49er pen the great weight of the locomotive sioners who was this proved the most difficult part not included in of the journey. With heavy logging the feature ayti chains and chain tackle fastened to cle appearing in the big pine trees, the 'black goose' the Bulletin last would be lowered down the grade as month. far as the tackle would permit. Then Mr. Stuhr was the engine would be blocked, and the retired in Sep tackle changed and so on until the tember, 1924, bottom of the grade was reached. after a continuous The 'black goose' finally reached service of 49 Heatonville, now Lower Cisco, where years 11 months. it caused great excitement. From The early part of there to the summit was up grade. his railroad career J. Stuhr This last leg was practically clear was spent on the Union Pacific on Sailing except for crossing the upper which line he started as section Lnd and lower outlets of Kids Lake or at Pine Bluff in October, 1874. A .the Cascade, as it is now known, and year later he was call boy and car crossing the Yuba River and Drivers builder apprentice at Cheyenne. Then Creek, the bridges over which had followed several years' service as car been rebuilt to take care of the penter and B. & B. foreman until 'goose.' September, 1904, when he was ap Everything was ready when the pointed car foreman at Sparks, which summit was reached. The engine was position he also held for four years at jacked up and placed on huge timbers Ogden. He was gang foreman at and soon was ready to pay with in- Roseville for two years and then car terest the cost of her coming. The foreman at Tracy, Sparks and Mina journey occupied six weeks. All this beforq, being promoted to general car was told to me by Missouri Bill, the forenian of Salt Lake Division at bullwhacker. Ogden in February, 1916. How they worked on the tunnel is At the time of his retirement lie indicated in a statement from Wilder, was one of the most popular men at who was then in the civil engineer- the shops in Ogden and was widely ing corps. When we reached the known on the Sacramento and Salt summit with the location line in Au- Lake divisions. He is now living at gust, 1866, the engine was running Sacramento. the hoisting works in the shaft which, at this time, was down nearly 90 that blocked the twel-e miles to the feet. The engineers were Con Col- , The rock through which the lins and George Gifford. They worked ~ierra tunnels were driven offered a 12-hour sbifts-no firemen I and no Fearful obstacle to hand drills an Saturday afternoons or Sundays off. ~i~ck powder. So bard was the rock Speed Tunnel Work in many places that the explosives To cross the Sierra fifteen tunnels shot out of the hole like charge from were driven altogether. The longest a gun without disturbing the solidity was the summit tunnel. Work on of the surrounding rock. the tunnels had been stopped entirely Nitroglycerin was invented in 1846 during the winter of 1865-1866.1. To but not produced commercially until 1862 and tbat in Sweden. None of A avoid another such delay, &W this Swedish product was available '- ~mn_e~n` a' for use on the Central Pacific. The work day and night on the approaches builders for a time inanufactured ni of the tunnels during the summer of troglycerin near the summit tunnel. 1866. One night in the autumn be The glycerin and nitric and sulphuric stumbled over two miles of rough acids were hauled by teams to the mountain trails and laid out the east factory. Some of this product was end of tunnel number 12 bv the light used on the sunimit tunnel and on of a bonfire. Before inianight the next two tunnels to the east, men were at work. where the rock was particularly hard. When winter began the headings This new explosive was greatly feared were underground so that the work by the workers, although the Chinese could go on uninterruptedly, though became skillful in using it. It was it was necessary to dig snow tunnels considered too dangerous for general 200 feet long to keep the entrances use and, except in the mountain tun open. That winter there were fort nels, was not used on Central Pacific y four snowstorms, in some of which construction. ten feet of snow fell. No Dynamite While the work was going on in Dynamite was invented in 1866 but the tunnels the construction of the none was used on the Central Pacific line below continued from Colfax. It Railroad work. was opened to Secret Town. July There still exists visible evidence found trains running into Dutch Flat, that these early builders did pretty connecting there with the stage lines well with black powder. Far out in for Nevada. Onward the rails forcea Donner Lake may be seen today great their way. October found the end of rocks that were blown from the right the track at Cisco and the builders of-way in 1866. There were many driving through the granite barriers instances where the too prodigal use llinC, J927 of black powder upset the plans of the engineering department. The winter of 1866-1867 was very severe. The total snowfall was forty feet and snow averaged eighteen feet deep on the level near the summit. This stopped all work except in the tunnels and there only under great difficulties. Snow came early and stayed late. In March, 1867, there was still fifteen feet of snow in Summit Valley. When the snow began to go the builders had to face the new danger of snow slides. During the spring of 1867 some of these slides above Alta carried away a number of buildings an&' ritinued next inbilth) NOTE 40-At the end of that year (1867) we were over the top of the mountains and nearly half way to Salt Lake City. The cost of building over the mountains was so much less than we had expected that the construction company found itself with a surplus from !he proceeds of the subsidy bonds. This was imprudently distributed in dividends, so that in a short time we were in greater distress than ever for money. To add to our embarrassments the fact that we had reached the dividend point brought the harpies down on us from outside and led to dissension among ourselves. (From Sidney Dillon's Last Spike. ) OPP iVXe(,4V1Ve,,An4d ne lew , of U6111s Big Four bul I Idgii 'May 25f~ Aii4,' bn li~ad beengradut~llyfaily~ ig-,-Sd-'r-~c'e a recenA opera ion. n' 1 1 ~ , 'It., Mr. Huntington had been a~director of the Southern Pacific Company from April, 1892. He retired from active connection with the Company in June, 1904. The former railroad executive was a famous collector of books. In his home at Pasadena he is said to have owned one of the finest private libraries in existence. He was the principal owner of the Los Angeles Railway. He was born at Oneonta, New York, February 27, 1850. ~~ SACRAMENTO STORE SONGSTERS ENTERTAIN VETERANS A group of Sacramento Store Department employes journeyed to Palo Alto May 1, where they entertained patients in Ward 8 of the U. S. Veterans' Hospital with a program of songs. The Store Department quartet, composed of Howard Harter, first tenor; Arthur A. Readdy, second tenor; D. Harris, baritone; and L, James, bass, was the main feature of the program. Ed Devine sang several solos, accompanied by Miss Josephine Thorp, who is also pianist for the quartet. P. J. Mockenhaupt, accompanied by Mrs. Mockenhaupt, concluded the program, with several solos. Cigarettes and candy were distributed*to the veterans, and Scotty Harris brought some good laughs with his favorite stories. Page Thirterr; to T 0 Xbrce--not en~;agid m-Aurne the,~ Truckee . R 119 - snowfall ~:'This wA a tremendous undertaking. There was a stage road to Truckee, which it took a large force of men busy to keep clear of the heavy snows. Over this road, steep and difficult in many places, through blinding -storms, the construction forces hauled material for forty miles of track. This was followed by three locomotives and forty cars. Until the forces returned to the mountains all supplies had to be forwarded by the same routesled from Cisco to Donner Lake and, as spring came, by wagon over muddy roads to Truckee. A,moving picture company recently We, q&'~me ,phase of J11 4AP-1 ~ac omp I W-~ auling.AM July, 19J7 CHAPTER XVII How Work Was Carried on Beyond Truckee During Tunnel Construction-Locomotives, Material for 40 Miles of Track Dragged Over Trails -Battling With the Snow. ~i_ ' fforces in the Truckee Canyon could -and41ll'vthat., ~0~ , be brought back to the mountains t, 6ker indicated, the arrival of HE UNION PACIFIC had sent snow in the mountain section did not scouts West to see how the Cen- immediately stop work even irne thore Ttral Pacific was coming along. open. The ground was kept ba These scouts reported the Californians the graders by shoveling. After stuck in the mountains and not likely storms the entire, I grading force to make any progress for months. shovel~'d snow. , W, ~jo 'b This led the Union Pacific to believe kfjjap - w ,a that they would easily reach the Cali fornia border before the Central Pa cifie was out of the,,clutchep, of, the ng w I the canyons was c on through the winter. A great dome was ex cavated in the snow, where the wall was to be built, and the wall stones were lowered through the shaft in the snow to the men working inside the dome. In addition to the great depth of snow, the heights of the Sierra were almost constantly swept by ice gales and blinding blizzards. Under the pressure of these blizzards, snow was forced through every crack and opening of the living quarters. One of the engineers records: I had an office and bedroom, which had to be shoveled out every time I returned to the mountains. The snow had to be shoveled out of the house before I could get into it. One had to be on tbe,N-ound to have any idea of the trouUle we bad to contend with on account of the snow. There were many snowslides that winter. In some cases entire camps were carried away and the bodies of the men not found until the following summer. Night and day work on the tunnels progressed through the long winter. It was June, 1867, before the There they found the grade still be . low between ten to twelve feet of snow, There was no time to wait for it to melt, so it was shoveled by hand ~ was a o a po n a oU Mo miles east of Summit. Snow then put a stop to construction, except from Truckee, where the line was being built westward and eastward, and where such progress was being made eastward that early in Decem ber the bull* ~cvt t he boundary line,g %06IT th the, of 1867 found only a seven-mile gap of difficult con struction in the Donner Lake country still to be completed before the Cen tral Pacific could take advantage of E! Dulff; TE y li I , i~qa `~ e Ceiatt-A WI ,' d n ! e The endits work beyond Truckee as part of the through line. The section beyond Truckee was in operation, however, long before the line was built through. Stage coaches were used to carry passengers and wagons to carry freight across the gap CHAPTER XVIII Story Of The Snow-sbeds. T was in 1867 that the decision to build snow sheds was reached. Arthur Brown, then superintendent of buildings and bridges, tells about it in a statement prepared twenty years later. He said: The experience in keeping the road open through the winter of 1866-1867. led to the construction of the snowsheds. Although every known appliance was used to keep the road clear from snow that winter, including the largest and best snow plows then known, it was found impossible to keep it open over half the time and that mostly by means of men and shovels, which required an army of men on band all the time at great expense. It became evident from our experience then that the snow problem had Page Eleven become serious and it was decided .,,after various discussions on the subject by the directors of the company that the only positive means of protecting the road was by snow-sheds and galleries. Although the expense of building a shed nearly forty miles in length was almost appalling and unprecedented in railroad construction, yet there seemed to be no alternative but to build the sheds. Some experimental sheds were built in the summer of 1867 but it was not until the spring of 1868 that snowshed construction began in earnest. Men were gathered from all quarters. Carpenters were paid $4 a day, laborers from $2.50 to $3. Twenty-five hundred men were put on the job with six trains to distribute material. Be_ fore the work of construction could begin from six to eight feet of snow had to be shoveled away to clear the foundations. Work continued until fall when after two months of shoveling the snow overwhelmed the shovels and put a stop to operations. There were not enough saw-mills to furnish the material required for the sheds and the builders had to use round and hewn lumber for a large part of the work. This was more costly and the more difficult because axemen in those days were very scarce. These timbers were brought from the woods over the snow at great expense. Snow-shed construction was completed in the fall of 1869. There was used in the work 65,000,000 feet B. M. of lumber and 900 tons of bolts and spikes. The shed was thirty-seven miles long and it cost more than $2,000,000 to build. CHAPTER XIX Unequalled Construction Program Begins. Crocker's Resolution To Build a Mile of Track a Day. Contract and Finance Com pany Organized. Builders Offer Interest to Any Willing to Share Re sponsibilities The spring of 1868 found the Central Pacific and Union Pacific on equal terms. While the Central Pacific had been crossing the Sierra the Union Pacific had surmounted Evans Pass, the highest point on the line (8,242 feet). Both companies were equally distant from Monument Point at the heart of the Great Salt Lake district; the Union Pacific being 622 miles away and the Central Pacific 545 miles. As soon as the weather permitted a construction campaign was begun which stands as one of the notable achievements in 'the history of '~lroad building., ~Y--fi around Truck e worked up lumber for the use of the Central Pacific and a dozen Paae Twelve - SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIa - Construction work being rushed forward on the first snow sheds built by the Central Pacific in the high Sierra near Cisco during the summer of 1868. Arthur Brown, then superintendent of bridges and buildings. was in charge of the work. mills in the Black Hills and Rockies performed a similar service for the Union Pacific. ar Im d'. ,a day, 'the C I en , tral Pacific reached Cisco, ninety-two miles from Sacra mento, the Union Pacific, although eighteen months later in starting, had extended its lines 247 miles out on the plains. The Central Pacific con struction had been almost entirely through mountains which had been pronounced impassable for a railroad and the cost of construction had been more than twice as much per mile as the maximum amount advanced by the government. The Union Pacific on the other hand had enjoyed easy sailing over a grade that averaged thirteen and one half feet to the mile at a cost per mile considerably less than the minimum government aid. Line Reaches Reno April 3rd, 1868, the Central Pacific line was above Truckee. Reno was reached June 19th and Wadsworth, July 22nd. By the time -the track reached the California-Nevada line practically all California, except t h o s e interests which would lose long enjoyed mo ,nopolies by the completion of the rail4-road, was on its side. As one pioneer woman said: We talked railroad, s, ~Crockei ~had announced 'Working 1869. we dreamed railroad, we lived railroad. To those who had come west across the plains or by way of Panama or Cape Horn, the railroad represented new-born hope for the restoration of home ties and the resurrection of friendships. Whether they had come to California by covered wagon, stage, steamer or sailing vessel the journey had been an undertaking so fraught with hardship and peril.that all but a few had put away as impossible the thought of ever going back. As construction progressed and the completion of the transcontinental railroad became more and more a certainty, visions of a visit back home grew real and popular enthusiasm waxed warm and friendly. This encouragement did much to offset the efforts of the railroad's enemies who were still fighting to hamper its progress. When the track reached the Cali fornia line, the Sierra conquered and comparatively plain sailing ahead, it was decided to organize a construc tion company in which outside capital could be interested so as to carry on the work on a bigger scale than ever. Race of the Giants The Union Pacific by this time was coming west at full SDeed. Both lines were awake to the future benefit in the way of revenue that every additional mile would mean. Furthermore, the vision to which Huntington and his associates had dedicated their fortunes and consecrated their lives was radually be on c ng rom a wild dream to actical certainty the West assume a new value in the eyes of the East, So it was that from all sides came the demand for haste. And in their effort to meet this demand and to acouire mileage each for itself, Union Pacific and Central JUlY. 19V SOUTHFP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN Pacific levied on every available re- the money kings of the east, Stanford source. was doing his part in California and An attempt had failed to interest with the same result. outside capital in the construction -_-~Stahfor fold'Ahe Pacific Railway firm of Charles Crocker & Co. Governor Stanford told the Pacific Railroad Commission about attempt, made when the was reached. By this time, he testified, our 111W means were very limited. Under act of Congress we had mortgaged the road and issued bonds 100 miles in'_~' advance of construction, and they were all consumed, together with the.county aid and all the aid that we recbived, and it was doubtful if we could possibly go on. We thought that by forming the Contract and Finance Company and agreeing to give it the stock of the company, that company might be able to interest capital. Of course this was practically givinv the contractors all the assets of the company, but it was better for us to do that than to fail. We organized the Contract and Finance Company (October 28, 1867) in the hope of Inducing capitalists to come in and take a part. We did not succeed in any quarter in interesting others and finally gave it up. Then I think each of us subscribed for a fifth, Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Huntington, Charles Crocker, E. B. Crocker and myself. Men of means in California and in the East were offered an interest in the Contract and Finance Company. Collis P. Huntington, years later, told the Pacific Railway Commission: Capital Hesitates, These strong men in New York did not like to come in under an unlimited partnership; but William K. Garrison said if we would organize a company, by which they would know the extent of their liability, he thought he would get his father in for one; that is Commodore Garrison. I had a talk with William E. Dodge whom I knew very well, and Moses Taylor; but more particularly Mr. Dodge. After the organization I spent a good deal of time with a dozen men, perhaps, in New York, endeavoring to get them to come in with us, but I did not get any of them in. D. 0. Mills I talked with a great many time.s, but he said -the risk he thought was too great. Mr. Garrison almost said be would-but not quite. He finally said the risk was too great. William tried to get him in but be said he did not like it; it was too large an undertaking, and the times were too uncertain. So by indorsing paper individually, which we did pretty largely here, we managed to get through. While Huntington was trying to sell the Contract and Finance Companyto It 4) NOTE 41-More than 1100 miles of double rails were laid by hand in thirteen months by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific combined, or an average of 3 miles of track a day in desert and mountain country. The Americal army engineers in France in 1918 laid 130 Im e. Of track in 100 days, being about 1 113 miles per day. The Pacific railway builders had no help from steam shovels, steam derricks, high exp!osives and 2like; the American railway engineers bad the best of modern eqipment and all the aids that ingenuity could devise and money buy. JUIV. Z927 op ns repor e on in New York that the attem interest outside capital in Calif had failed; that they would ha carry on with their own reso He asked Huntington how much of the Contract and Finance Company stock Huntington and Hopkins should take. Huntington wired back: Take as little as you can but as much as you must. This is how and why the associates continued to build their own railroad. Later on, when the work was completed, the road a success and the stock, which they had taken in return for their money and labor, became valuable, this action-without which t4e road could not have been built, at least for many years-was assailed as unethical. The men who at the risk of their fortunes and by great personal sacrifices opened California to the world and gave transcontinental railroad construction its first practical demonstration, spent a large part of their riper years defending their names and their property from attacks either inspired by jealousy or STOCKTON PEOPLE PEDICATE NEW AUTO FERRY Two bundred residents of Stockton were present on the trial trip of the Company's -new steel Diesel electric auto ferry boat Stockton When the vessel was formally placed in service June 4. The dedication ceremony was held on board the boat under the auspices of the Stockton Chamber of Commerce. Assistant General Manager T. Ahern made the presentation address which was responded to by J. V. Mendenhall, president of the Stockton Chamber of Commerce, who also presented, a metal plaque, symbolic of Stockton, as a permanent fixture on the boat. Luncheon was served the visitors, and during the cruise around the bay a quartet of popular singers entertained, and music for dancing was furnished by a Southern Pacific orchestra. The Stockton is one of the three new auto ferry boats placed in service in the last few weeks. Like its sister ships, it has a capacity for 100 automobiles and costs $525,000. arising from a complete misunderstanding of the truth. (To be continued) NOTE 42- 1 have been at work for myself more than fifty-four years with an honesty of Eurppse and, I believe, an intelligent economy ut in all the work that I have ever done .A all the money that I have ever made, none ever has cost me the mental or physical strain that the work done and the money made on the Central Pacific Railroad has cost me, and in all this work can truly say that 1 have done no injustice to my conscience or to my country. Collis P. Hunting-ton in a letter to member Congress, published in Southern Pacific :noual report 1894, page 46. A track gang worki 'I * Ten-Mile Canyon along the Humboldt River in Nevad ng at curvin a ur th ~rai in building of the original entra acific lines. The picture was probably Laken during 1867. Crude ods were used in curving the fifty-six-pound iron rail compared with modem machinery necessary to curve the go lb., i i o lb. and the latest i 3o lb. steel rails. Two ties were placed on the tracks about twenty-five feet apart. The thirty-two foot rail was laid on its side across the two ties. Six or eight men stood on the rail. Another man, as the one shown in the picture with the hammer. started at one end of the rail wielding lusty Swings witb his hammer, the weight of the men standing on the rail adding the spring necessary to bend the ra .4rvnan would step off the rail to make room for the man with the hammer, and then would step back on the rail again. The hammer men acquired great skill in their work. The rail would be stood on end and by sighting along the rail or measuring with a string, the hammer man would know just where to give the rail a few more blows with the hammer to give the proper balanced curve. White laborers were engaged in this class of work Page Thirteen 17 AugUit, 1927 .iO SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN~77 ~T r Ai CHAPTER XX Failure to Enlist Outside Help Does Not Stop Work. Conquest of the Desert. THE men that had conquered the Sierra in the face of warnings, advice and active opposition did not allow delays attending the at tempted reorganization of their con struction program to interfere with the construction itself. That never stopped. By the time the road reached Wadsworth, July 22, 1868, surveys had been made far into Utah and the builders of the Central Pacific knew exactly what was ahead of them. In the mountains the country though which the grade was driven had provided' a boundless supply of pure water for all purposes; timbers and boards for ties, bridges and other structures, and wood to be used as fuel in the locomotives, as well as rock for retaining walls and other masonry. Desert Waste The country east of Wadsworth was a desert. It afforded nothing entering into the super-structure of a railroad which could be made available. With the exception of a few cords of stunted pine and juniper trees all the fuel used to the westward would have to be hauled from the Sierra Nevada mountains. There was not a coal bed anywhere on the line of the Central Pacific. There was not a tree that would make a board on that desert section for more than 500 miles of the road. There was no water after leaving the Truckee and Humboldt rivers. In the mountains east of Wadsworth may still be seen the tunnels bored into the hills by the builders of the Central Pacific to develop small springs. Thousands of dollars were spent there and farther cast in well boring. When water was developed it was carefully protected and piped over miles of desert to the line of the road. Most of the water used on the construction from now on had to be hauled in water trains to the end of the track and from there on for the use of the graders in tank wagons. In the face of known difficulties, of which these are but a few, the intrepid Four planned to carry out their big program of construction. About 3000 men were sent 300 miles in advance of the track to Palisade Canyon and supplied by teams over the desert, the haui without water being as much as forty miles in places. The remaining forces carried the grading from Wadsworth east. Ties were hauled from the Sierra, hundreds of miles in the desert. Canvas towns sprung up in the sandy wastes where -a jack-rabbit had to carry a canteen and haversack. These towns lived but a few days and then moved on as the speedway for the iron horse forged its way eastward. Here from a San Francisco newspaper (The Alta California) is a picture of one of these moves: Camp equipage, work shops, boarding house, offices, and in fact the big settlement literally took up its bed and walked. The place that knew it at morning knew it no more at night. It was nearly ten miles off and where was a busy town of 5,000 inhabitants in the morning, was a deserted village site at night, while a smooth, well built, compact road bed for traveling stretched from the morning site to the evening tarrying place. The work in the Palisades was done with a dispatch that wins wondering comment from railroad builders of today. One stretch of twelve miles through the canyon was graded in six weeks and another of five miles in three weeks. It was also deemed important to reduce some of the work in the lower mountains crossed by the railroad in Utah, so that when the track reached those points there should be no delay. About a carload of supplies and materials was wagoned across the desert from Wadsworth to Promontory. It is recorded that the transportation of this outfit cost $5,400. Mormons Help A force of engineers mad ' e the loca tion surveys for about 100 miles west from the site of the present city of Ogden, Utah. A contract was let to Mormon people to grade the railroad for 100 miles west. This was com pleted before the track layers arrived from the west, and made possible the rapid progress in building the road to meet the Union Pacific at Promontory. Meanwhile the work on the main grade was giving the builders concern; the cold weather ,vhich had added to the difficulty of mountain construction beset them on the plains. The winter of 1868-69 was one of the most severe of the construction period. This added to the difficulty of keeping the mountain road open,'as the construction of snow-sheds was not yet complete, and uninterrupted headway for the constant procession of materials and supplies was a necessity to carry on the construction at the speed Oanned. Blast Frozen Ground The ground in the upper Humboldt Valley, where the graders were working was frozen for several feet down. Men who had shoveled twenty feet of snow to find foundation for a snowshed timber never thought of waiting for warm weather to soften the ground. It was hard as rock and as such they treated it, breaking it up with blasting powder, of which at this time they used an incredible amount every month. This frozen material made troublesome and costly embankments as it required constant attention when the frost was leaving it to maintain a stable roadway. August 21, 1868, found the road open and operating to Browns, Nevada, 235 miles from Sacramento. Argenta was reached November 19 and March 5, 1869, the Central Pacific was operating to Carlin, Nevada. In spite of the difficulties of desert construction it was easy work compared with the obstacles in the mountains and Charles Crocker's program of a mile a day was being carried out. The late William Hood, authority on railroad construction and familiar with all phases of railroad building, both in western mountains and deserts, summed up the comriarison thus: From Newcastle to Wadsworth was built between February 1865 and July 1868 with a force averaging fully 11,000. More than three years' time was required for this 157 miles. From Wadsworth to Ogden was built between July, 1868, and May 1869 with a force averaging 5,000. Between nine and ten moriths were required to build this 555 miles. The work of building from Wadsworth to Ogden is about comparable on the average to that from Ogden to Omaha and the work of building the Central Pacific from Newcastle to Wadsworth, only 157 miles, would easily have built the entire road far east of Orneffia, had this 157 miles been of the same average cost as the road from Wadsworth to Omaha. - Page Nine WMA SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETI9 CHAPTER XXI Prohibition Regulations Enforced With Iron Hand on Central Pacific. Newspaper Correspondent Describes Scene at End of Track. Advocates of prohibition may find it interesting to compare the conditions under which the Union Pacific builders and the Central Pacific builders did their work. The temporary towns established by the Union Pacific have gone down into history as hells on wheels and hell-roaring towns and the records of those wild days still furnishes material for the moving picture director in search of history with a thrill in it. Here, from the San Francisco Alta California of May 1, 1869, is a description of a Central Pacific construction town: Neither whiskey nor places for dissipation are permitted by the Central Pacific near their lines. In the course of a ride with Mr. Strobridge we came to one of the camps of the Central Pacific. Strobridge got out to look after some business and returned in a somewhat excited manner, saying, 'I have just discovered one of those whiskey mills.' He at once called all the officers of the camp and directed them to have the thing moved at once and if objection was made to destroy the liquor. Of course the company had no legal right to prevent free American citizens from selling poison or rum for that matter but they found it to be to their own interest and took the law in their own hands and as a result of this their army of workers is enjoying the full fruits of their earnings. Scenes at Rail End From the same newspaper in the % 00v6mbei~14,'18qP, we have Ntor- af the de~nfrai Pacific construction forces..4n.. action. rhe correspondent reached there early in the morning. Long lines of horses, mules and wagons were standing in the open desert near the camp train. The stock was getting its breakfast of hay and barley. Trains were shunting in from the west with SUDI)lies and materials for the day's work. Foremen were galloping here and there on horseback giving or receiving orders. Swarms of laborers, Chinese,. Europeans and Americans, were hurrying to their work. On one side of the track stood the movable blacksmith shop where a score of smiths were repairing tools and shoeing horses and mu'es. Close by was ¥ fully equipped har.iess shop where ¥ large force was repairing collars, traces and other leather equipment. To the west were the rails and a line of telegraph poles stretching back as far as the eye could reach. The telegraph wire from the last pole was strung into the car that served as a telegraph office. To the east ward stretched the grade marked by a line of newly distributed earth. By the side of the grade smoked the camp fires of the blue clad laborers who could be seen in groups waiting for the signal to start work. These were the Chinese, and the job of this particular contingent was to clear a level roadbed for the track. They were the vanguard of the construction forces. Miles back was the camp of the rear guard-the Chinese who followed the track gang, ballasting and finishing the road bed. Systematic workers these Chineseconivetent and wonderfully effective because tireless and unremitting in their industry. Order and industry then as now made for accomplishment. Divided into gangs of about thirty men each, they worked under the direction of an American foreman. The Chinese boarded themselves. One of their number was selected in each gang to receive all wages and buy all provisions. They usually paid an American clerk-$1 a month apiece was usual-to see that each got all he earned and was charged no more than his share of the living expenses. They were paid from $30 to $35 a month, out of which they boarded themselves. They are credited with having saved about $20 a month. Their workday was from sunrise to sunset, six days in the week. They spent Sunday Statue of Collis P. Huntington ~on,the statIA &, Ohio Railroad it The activities of Mr. oad building in the ot alone confined to his association with the **Big Four in constructin; the early lines of the Central Pacific and Southern Kcific. In November, 1869, he became actively connected with the building of the Chesapeake & Ohio and was president of the road for ig years. His confidence and daring effort as a railroad builder and his clear vision of the future resulted in construction of the road and development that brought future success. The city of Huntington. W. Va., was named in his honor. washing and mending, gambling and smoking, and frequently, old timers will testify, in shrill-toned quarreling. At sunrise a signal to turn to was given from the camp train. What at first seemed confusion to the visitor soon resolved itself into ordered action. A train of about thirty cars loaded with materials and supplies had been spotted close behind the camp train. This supply train left the nearest supply station every morning early enough to reach the end of the track W sunrise. On it were ties, rails, spikes, bolts, telegraph poles, wire, etc. Movin~ Forward The rails, ties and other material were thrown off the train as near to the end of the track as feasible, and then the empty train was drawn back out of the way. At this point the rails were loaded on low flat cars, and hauled by horses to end of tr ~k. The ties were handled in the & te way. Behind came the rail gang, who took the rails from the flat cars and laid them on the ties. While thev were doing this a man on each sid~ distributed spikes, two to each tie; another distributed splice bars; and a third the bolts and nuts by which the ends of the rails were spliced together. Then came the spikers, two on each side, to pin the rails to the ties. Two more men followed to adjust and bolt the splice bars. As fast as a flat car was unloaded it was t1irned on its side to allow the loaded cars to pass it. It was then returned to the rails and sent back for another load. All this time wagons were distributing telegraph poles along the grade. Cross arms were nailed onto them. Another gang working under a foreman of telegraph construction dug the holes for the poles and a third gang erected the poles. It was the aim of this third gang to keep pace with the rail gang. At times lack of wagons made it impossible to keep up the supply of poles and the telegraph gangs, who prided themselves on never letting the track get ahead of them, would utilize sage brush, barrels, ties-surreptitiously swiped from the track-or anything else that would keep the wire off the ground until the supply of poles again equaled the demand. Then came a wagon bearing a reel of wire which unrolled as the wagon went ahead. As the wire uncoiled it was carried up on the poles and made fast to the insulators. Back of the track builders followed a gang with the seven more ties necessary to comDlete the foundation for each rail. These were put into position and spiked by another gang, which also leveled up the track and left it ready for the ballasters. Meanwhile on board the camp train cooks were preparing dinner, clerks were busy with accounts and records, and the telegraph wire was tapping back the needs of the following day in the way of materials and supplies. Twice a day the camp train moved to the end of the track-at noon to give all hands the hot dinner that six hours of labor had earned and at Auzust. roz7 night to give supper and sleeping accommodations. Immediately on reaching the end of the track at night a telegraph wire was cut in from the last pole to the telegraph car and Sacramento was notified of the number of miles of track laid. CHAPTER XXII. Grades Parallel Each Other for 200 Miles-Point of Meeting Agreed On-Ten Miles of Track in One Day - Driving of Last Spike During the latter part of the race the grading forces of the tWo companies worked almost in sight of each other. Before the meeting of the tracks at Promontory put a stop to further construction, the Central Pacific line had been surveyed to Echo Canyon, eighty miles east of Ogden and the grading done almost to Ogden. The Union Pacific had graded west to Humboldt Wells so that the grades paralleled each other for nearly two hundred miles, In addition to as much mileage as possible, the Central Pacific sought access- to the Salt Lake Valley, which at that time had Dearly all the trade between Wahsatch Valley and the 100th rn~rithan and offered a prize worth trying for. Meanwhile both roads had been notified by the Government that they must decide on a place of meeting. Huntington in New York notified the Union Pacific officials that Promontory would suit the Central Pacific. He said that if the Union Pacific would build their road west to Promontory, which was 54 miles west of Ogden, the Central Pacific would buy enough of that road east of Promontory to enable them to enter the Salt Lake Valley. He intimated further that if the Union Pacific would not agree to this the CentralPacific would build into the valley~,~, anyway, paralleling the Union Pacific tracks. Th Union Pacific agreed to sell and off er 45 miles of constructed rail roadvr $4,000,224.96. The Government scaled down this price to $3,000,000 for 471/2 miles of track. This took the Central Pacific within five miles of Ogden. In order to make Ogden the common terminal, this five miles was leased later to the Central Pacific for 999 years. The Southern Pacific still pays for this five miles of track, although since the construction of the Lucin cut-off it now uses but a very small portion of it. John Chinaman News that the Pacific railroad was nearing completion began to spread throughout the country. Special correspondents were hastened to the scene by newspapers east and west and America began to read with its breakfast intimate stories from the construction camps and marvelous tales.of track laving on the desert. The people of the East got their first real glimpses of the lawless life that marked the Union Pacific end o' track ; they learned for the first time something of that peaceful but industrious worker, John Chinaman, who .4 ugust, 19ZI had made the construction of the Cen Irish Track Layers He continues: It may seem in day meal six miles had been added to the track. The Alta California correspondent tells us: A large delegation of gentlemen from the Union Pacific were with us all the afternoon. They were exceedingly skeptical as to whether this feat could be performed at all-in fact it was said they'were willing to bet failure was sure. The accidt!nt on the first day rather encouraged them in this idea. Here at lunch with us, with six miles already accomplished, their ideas are completely revolutionized. The head man among them admits that the organization of the Central Pacific is far superior to theirs. It is necessary to bear in mind that nearly an hour was lost after dinner in bending rails, rather the rails are placed on blocks and, with blows of heavy hammers, are forced into the desired forms. If the line had been perfectly straight and level the men who laid ten miles of railroad would have easily accomplished fifteen. CAN'T LOSE TIME ON THE S. P.; WATCH QUICKLY FOUND ' Y_ .-twelve hours was a day's work in 1869-ten miles and two hundred feet of track had been laid. This involved bringing up and putting into position 25,800 ties, 3520 rails, averaging 560 pounds each in weight, 55,000 spikes, 7040 poles, 14,080 bolts, or a total of 4,362,000 pounds. After the work had stopped, Boarding Boss Campbell ran a heavy train over the new track, making the round trip in forty minutes, just to prove that the work had been well done. That day's performance left the Central Pacific just three and one-half miles from the meeting place. The Union Pacific had six miles to build. This track was laid the following day, all but two rail lengths, which were left open until arrangements should be completed for the formal ceremony of driving the last spike. (To be continued) The old adage that time flies never to be regained has been completely reversed by the work of several Southern Pacific employes. A few days ago Mrs. A. W. Peterson of Sacramento was a passenger on Train No. 29, local from Sac~ramento to Oakland Pier. Shortly after the train departed from Sacramento she lo~lher wrist watch out of a window which she had opened. Not knowing what to do about it, she waited until Conductor T. J. Hawkins came through. She reported her loss to him. Hawkins asked her to estimate the length of time that had elapsed since the watch was lost. With this information, he computed the speed of the train and decided upon an approximate point where the watch disappeared. Arriving at Davis, he passed this information along to Yard Clerk J. L. Remlinger, who telephoned the dispatcher's office at Sacramento. That office in turn notified the superintendent's office and J. F. Wright was dispatched on the hunt. When the train reached Port Costa, about fifty minutes later, Conductor Hawkins was handed the following messa e: 6(yog u may tell passenger that her watch has been found. All of which attests to the constant readiness of employes all along the line to look after the comfort and peace of mind of the Company's patrons. I have heard that you can't lose time on the Southern Pacific, and it certainly has been demonstrated in this instance, Mrs. Peterson remarked as she alighted from the train at Oakland Pier. Page Twelve Gordon Grant. noted marine artist, has painted this inspiring picture of Old I ronsides-, America*s first warship. Reproductions ofthis Masterpiece in two colors. size t7X11 inches, are being distributed for 25 cents each. in the nation wide campaign to raise sufficient funds to reconstruct and preserve the historic old frigate. Save Old Ironsides is Nation Appeal OLD IRONSIDES, the gallant old Frigate Constitution which was America's first warship, is fast going to decay in the Charleston Navy Yard at Boston, and, through a national committee headed by Rear Admiral Philip Andrews, an appeal is made for the support of every patriotic citizen in the effort to raise sufficient funds to reconstruct the historic ship as a floating monument. Fun~s are being raised through th*e sale of 17x2l reproductions of Gordon Grant's masterpiece, Old Ironsides, printed in ten colors. The pictures sell for 25 cents each. Printed by a new process, these pictures have every appearance of the original painting and will enhance the beauty of any room. There is no relic in our country more symbolic of the early heroism National Save Old Ironsides Committee Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.: Enclosed please find (check) (money order) (stamps) in the amount of $ for which send ....... copies of the reproduction of Gordon Grant's painting to the follo in * w~ ame' Address J PL he su wi co or] pa th of the nation than the U. S. S. Constitution. She was launched during the administration of President George Washington. She bea the scars of forty-two battles, and Naore of vanquished captains brought their flags and swords for surrender to her victorious captain. Seeing the British solid shot bounding off the oak sides of the Constitution during the engagement with the Guerriere, the American sailors called her Old Ironsides, and as such she is known throughout the world. Congress would have appropriated the funds necessary for reconditioning the old frigate, but the Secretary of the Navy believed it would be a beautiful exhibition of patriotism if the people themselves, and particularly the children of the country, gave small amounts to make up the fund needed. Old Ironsides has never known defeat, but the ravishing hand of time now rests heavily upon this gallant old defender of our young nation, She should be saved, so that our children's children may see this unique veteran of the early and stormy days of the Republic and be inspired to carry on the patriotic traditions she began. The form in the opposite column is for convenience in ordering the picture. Clip it out and mail to the address given. 0 an T1 an 19 pa tit er to fie at, tic th tr, ne thi Pa pl( fri thi en thi cif nit fei sil ne afl qu pe vi,~ thi wi fol wi thi At SO] Everything comes to him who waits, Sa But here's a plan that's slicker; pe~ The guy who goes after what he by wants vis Will get it that much quicker.-Ex. qu. August, xgz7 Au: If d SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN K ~_ PP, Ai4~ 6.2 W PIP t e ail (Continued from last month) FTER the day for the ceremony of laying the last rail and driv 11V ing the last spike had been changed twice, owing to the delayed arrival of Union Pacific officials, May 10, 1869, was decided upon. The records vary as to how many people witnessed the ceremony. The Chicago Tribune, whose correspondent was on the spot, speaks of the atten dance as a multitude. Other papers spoke of thousands as being there. Sidney Dillon, director and later president of the Union Pacific., who wrote an account of the ceremony, gives the number as between 500 and 600. This was probably nearer the mark than any of the others, because the place was remote from centers of population and, outside the officials of both companies and their friends, these present included only the workers, who were few, because as soon as the big rush had been Com pleted the men were transferred to other points; and a few soldiers. A Way to China According to Dillon, even on the completion of the railroad, its true significance was appreciated only by a limited number. After comparing the opening of the Pacific Railroad in importance and in its relations to the spread of population, development and advance of civilization, with the landing of the Pilgrims and the famous voyage of Columbus, he said: The 500 or 600 men who saw the connection made at Promontory were strongly impressed with the convic tion that the event was of historic importance, but, as I remember it now, we connected it rather with the notion of transcontinental communi cation and trade with China and Japan than with internal develop ment, or what railroad men call local traffic. We were somewhat visionary, no doubt, but none of us dreamed that the future of the Pacific roads de pended more on the business that would grow out of peopling the deserts it traversed than on the through traffic. The Associates long bef I ore the Cen tral Pacific was finished had reached the conclusion to which Mr. Dillon had not then awakened and bad laid extensive plans for the development d6 of, local traffic, the revenue from Septemberi'1927 which on the Central Pacific had helped materially in its construction. Arrangements for the ceremony attending the driving of the last spike were made at very short notice. This was done principally through the cooperation of the telegraph companies, all of whose principal offices in the country were informed a few hours before the ceremony that, as soon as the preliminaries were completed, a telegraphic signal would be given, which would inform every office in connection with Promontory that the last spike had been driven. This was done by attaching one end of the telegraph circuit to the spike and the other to the sledge, so that the blows of the sledge closed the circuit and gave the signal. Let us look at the picture as Mr. Dillon saw it: It was not a large crowd. In brass bands, fire-works, procession and oratory, the demonstration when ground was broken at Omaha less than five years before, was much more imposing. A small excursion party, headed by Governor Stanford, bad come from San Francisco; while on our side, besides our own men, there were only two or three persons present, among whom was Rev. Dr. Todd of Pittsfield. Not more than 500 or 600 all told comprised the whole gathering, nearly all of whom were officials of the two companies, contractors, surveyors and employes. Ready for Ceremony The point of junction was in a level circular valley about three miles in diameter surrounded by mountains. During all the morning hours the hurry and bustle of preparation went on. Two lengths of rails lay on the ground near the opening in the roadbed. At a little. before eleven the Chinese laborers began leveling up the road-bed preparatory to the last ties in position. ,. gines moved nearer each other and the crowd gathered around the open spaces. Then all fell back a little so that the view should be unobstructed. r war p, Vfte,,-,:_taa:de_ y N k 'd d e ,an It was now aboiat I -6818'ck'~ , local time, or about -tw_o P.1 ' M '. in New York. nten ents, d 5' ,~ 411eu - 7 of California laurel, bi ith a silver plate in the center bearing the follow ing inscription: 'The last tie laid on the completion of the Pacific Rail road, May 10, 1869,' with the names of the officers and directors of both companies. Driving the Spike Everything being then in readiness, the word was given and 'Hats off' went clicking over the wire to the waiting crowds at New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco and all principal cities. Prayer was offered by Dr. Todd, at the conclusion of which our operator tapped out: 'We have got done praying. The spike is about to be presented,' to which the response came back: 'We understand. All ready in the East.' The gentlemen who had been commissioned to present the four spikes, two of gold and two of silver, from Montana, Idaho, California and Nevada, stepped forward and, with brief appropriate remarks, discharged the duty assigned them. Governor Stanford, standing on the north, and Dr. Durant on the south side of the track, received the spikes and put them in place. The operator tapped out 'All ready now. The spike will soon be driven. The signal will be three dots for the commencement of the blows.' An instant later the silver hammers came down and, at each stroke, in -all the offices from San Francisco to New York and throughout the land, the hammer of the magnet struck the bell. The signal 'Done' was received at Washington at 2:47 P. M., which was about a quarter of one at Promontory. There was not much formality in the demonstration that followed, but the enthusiasm was genuine and unmistakable. The two engines moved up until they touched each other and a bottle of champagne was poured on the last rail after the manner of christening a ship at a launching. P.- Fl~. SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN From other sources we learn that it was Union Pacific Engine No. 119 and Jupiter, Central Pacific, No. 60 (engineer, George Booth; fireman, Richard Murphy) that touched noses on that historic occasion, and that both engines were dressed with flags and evergreens for the occasion and loaded from tender to smoke-stack with cheering workers. Superintendent Vandenburgh was in charge of the telegraphic arrangements, with Amos L . Bowsher, Southern Pacific pensioner, then foreman of telegraphic construction-who still loves to tell about that wonderful day on the desert-standing by at the top of a pole to see th ess, on behalf of the state of California, presented to Governor Stanford a gold spike. It was Mr. Tuttle from Nevada who presented a silver spike, with the words: To the iron of the East and gold of the West, Nevada adds her link of silver to span the continent and wed the oceans. I The record shows that even then ceremonies had to take orders from photographers. General Casement of the Union Pacific, just before the last blow was struck, requested the crowd to fall back so that a photographer could take a picture of the scene. Immediately after the ceremony a telegram was sent to President Grant and a copy to the Associated Press worded thus: The last rail is laid; the last spike driven. The Pacific Railroad is completed. The point of junction is 1 ' 086 miles west of the Missouri River and 690 miles east of Sacramento City. Nation Celebrates In Washington, Manager Tinker of the telegraph company had fixed a magnetic bell in a conspicuous place and had invited the business cummunity to be present and hear it tap as the last spike was driven on the railroad. Similar bells were installed at New Orleans, New York, Boston and Omaha. In Chicago-th completion o the railroad was f wed by an i promptu parade through the streets. A feature of this procession was an array of mail wagons with postoffice employes and several tons of mail matter in bags labeled and marked as if bound for some of the large cities Dr. Harkn '011 _4 Omaha. e a'ou nnoi6'n,6Wfmhtt c, f ollo in on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. Some of these markings were: Victoria, Australia; Washington; Oregon; Yeddo, Japan; Peking, China; Golden City, Colorado; Denver, Colorado; Hongkong, China, via Chicago; Yokohama, Japan. When the announcement of the completion of the road reached New Page Twelve Know Their Fuel W. E. Stoermer, left, engineer of Los Angeles Division, and G. E. Grass. engineer ofStorkton Division, who have been awarded a diamond to place in their gold cap badges in recognition of having won the garterly award thirteen times on their respective ivisions, for leading in fuel saving. Only one other engineer, J. R. Falvey of Western Division, has received this distinction on Pacific Lines. T0 Engineers W. E. Bill Stoermer, of Los Angeles Division, and Charlie E. Grass, of Stockton Division, goes the distinction of having a diamond placed along with the solid row of gold stars in their cap badges, in, recognition of having won the quarterly award for excellent work in fuel saving on their divisions for the thirteenth time. The first time an engmeman is among the leading fuel savers on his division for a quarterly period, he is given a gold caQ badge. Then each time he leads after that a star is added to the cap badge. There is only space for eleven stars on the badge, so, for the next award, a diamond replaces the center star. Blue stars will be used for succeeding awards. Stoermer and Grass, together with J. R. Falvey, Western Division engineer, who has already been awarded his diamond, have been the most consistent leaders in fuel conservation work on Pacific Lines. Grass first won his badge for the 4th quarter of 1921, and Stoermer won his cap badge for the 2nd quarter in 1922. Both engineers have taken the prize trip four times to the annual convention of the International Railway Fuel Association. On his return from the convention this year, Stoermer gave the boys at the division fuel committee meeting some friendly advice and invited them to knock him over as leading fuel savers of the division. He gave warning, though, that he was going to lead them a heavy pace, and, judging from the second quarter, he intends to keep his word. York the mayor ordered a salute of 100 guns and he himself sent to the mayor of San Francisco this message: Our flags are now flying; our cannon are now booming, and in old Trinity a Te Deum imparts thankful harmonies to the busy hum about her church walls. The Chambers of Commerce of the two cities also exchanged congratulations and, in the flowery language of the day, recognized the new highway as an agent that would not -ft only Develop the resources, extend the commerce, increase the power, exalt the dignity and perpetuate the unity of our republic, but, in its broader relations as the segment of a world-embracing circle directly connecting the nations of Europe with those of Asia, would materially facilitate the enlightened and advancing civilization of our age. Church Bells Ring Trinity Church in New York was thrown open and a special service conducted in honor of the completion of the railroad. The Philadelphia celebration took the form of bell ringing, improvised so suddenly that it was mistaken for a general alarm of fire and for a time the greatest panic prevailed. Omaha also took its part in the celebration, and, in speeches and telegraphic messages, announced to the world that Omaha and Sacramento were forever united by iron bands and that now had been opened a highway from the gates of the East to the realms of the sunset itself. A sermon preached in the Congre gational Church * of Sacramento on May 9,1869, by the Rev. 1. E. Dwinnell, D.D., On the completion of the over land railway furnishes a picture of the popular attitude toward the rail road at that time. Dwinnell took as his texts Isaiah, 40th Chapter, verses 3 to 5, and Nahum, 2nd Chapter, verses 3 and 4. It is fit, he said, on the completion of the great transcontinental line of railroad, to bring the subject into the house of God, lift it up into the light of its relations to the kingdom of God and make it a topic of devout acknowledgment and thanksgiving. It is one of the gifts of Providence to this side of the continent and the boon falls especially into the lap of California. Sacramento brooded over the enterprise and gave it life, and it comes back with its blessings first to her. And to the leading spirits by whose ra.-,eh of brainwork, diplomacy, filiancial_~~, varied and wide and remote combinations, and, above all, by whose sleepless, fiery energy the work of the Central Pacific road has been done. All have been our friends and neighbors and most of them have chanced to be connected with this congregation. Praise Sacramento He spoke of Sacramento as a small city reduced by fire and floods to a population of not more than 12,000. She, he said, furnished the men who led off on this dizzy idea in practical ways and the continent followed. He then gave a chronological record of the construction; described the railroad builders as striding across the plains, struggling through valleys, pushing hills right and left, laying hands of iron on the icy manes of mountains and springing over; grinding obstructions of rock and earth to powder and tossing them in the air; accompanied by a noisy retinue of tongues and brogues and a wild commotion of nature, and gaining at last such momentum that they September, r927 I tt SOUTIIERLN PACIFIC BULLETIN 9 I s t f c e e 0 S 1, f d6 shot 200 miles past each other before stopping. The railroad he said, has pierced mountains and spanned rivers to unite oceans that nature had elbowed apart and held apart by a series of rocky wedges. He told how the builders had met and silenced all objections, some of which he enumerated. They were told, he said, that no engine could climb the bold front of the Sierra Nevadas. The track has been laid and long trains glide to the surpmit. They were told that mountain ridges of granite or porphyry would block their way. I High explosives blew holes through them. They were warned that the snow falls from 15 to 20 feet deep for scores of miles would stou their road. The track is covered with sheds and the snowplow does the rest. They were told that land slides would carry away their railroad. Engineering and masonry render them harmless. They were advised that men could never work on the alkali flats and deserts where there is no water. Cars were converted to a movable aqueduct and sent to the end of the track and the water carted thence to the front at an expense that equaled half the cost of the grading, And the fundamental question of finance, which frightened most of the capitalists of the state, was accepted by a few bold men of special previous training in moral courage who had faith in their ability to build the road on the means made available with a margin and who went forward, abandoned by others, alone and in their own name and built it and have not lacked the means nor the margin, and they have earned and deserved their reward. Rev. DwinnelI concluded his sermon by advising the management to rest from their labors on the Sabbath and entrust no engine, no car, no brake, no switch, no dei)ot, no construction of trains, no~signaling, no grading or repairing of track, to a man whose brain is not always cool and his 'udg ment clear and steady by freed O'~ from strong drink. (To be Continued) FREIGHT PROTECTION IS TOPIC AT OAKLAND TERMINAL Freight protection work was one of the subjects discussed at length dur-' ing meeting of Oakland Terminal employes held the evening of August 16 and morning of August 17. The meeting was presided over by Assistant Superintendent J. D. Brennan, and many good suggestions were brought out in the interchange of ideas. In the discussion of freight protection, it was explained how that work is affected by handling car orders, inspecting equipinent, sealing cars, issuance of bills of lading, making waybills, routing freight, regulating ventilators on refrigerator cars handling diversions, switching an~ rough handling. September, 1927 NEW CHIEF CLERK TO SUP'T OF TRANSPORTATION C. W. Powell has been appointed chief clerk to superinteildent of transportation at San Francisco, succeeding W. E. Edwards, who resigned to enter business in Los Angeles. Starting as caller at San Francisco Yard Office in November, 1908, Powell advanced through various yard office ositions un C. W. Powell til appointed assistant chief clerk in 1911. In March, 1913, he-transferred to the Superintendent of Transporta tion Office and held various positions. Since August, 1925, he had been as sistant chief clerk. as _~~Ien clerk W. J. McNally, who h and car distribu tor in the Trans pprtation Office since September, 1925,succeeds Powell as assis tant chief clerk. Most of his serv ice has been at Oakland, where he started as a messenger at the yard pffice in August, 1912. He held various yard W.J. McNally office positions, and, after serving in the Army overseas, returned to Oak land Yard and, in March, 1920, was appointed assistant chief clerk. Be fore transferring to the Superinten dent of Transportation Office he was assistant car distributor at Oakland Pier. EDWARDS LEAVES TO ENTER LOS ANGELES BUSINESS W. E. Edwards, who for the last two years has been chief clerk to the superintendent of transportation at San Francisco, has left the serv ice to enter the undertaking busi-*.' ness with his brothers, Ed wards- Bros., Inc., of Los Angeles. Edwards was widely known over P aci fic Lines, having at times during his been located at points on the Tucson Division and at Oakland Pier. Since 1918 he had been in the Superintendent of Transportation Office. He started as a yard clerk at Benson, Ariz., in July, 1906. During the next year he became chief yard clerk and, in 1908, transferred to Tucson as chief yard clerk. He was later chief clerk to the trainmasters at Tucson, car distributor, and assistant chief clerk to superintendent. In February, 1917, he went W. E. Edwards 21-years' service to Oakland Pier as head trainmen's timekeeper, where he also served as assistant head timekeeper. During the time he was in the Superintendent of Transportation Office he was clerk, car distributor, transportation inspector and assistant chief clerk before taking his recent position as chief clerk in 1925. Edwards' many friends in the Southern Pacific family wish him success in his new business. SALT LAKE DIVISION AGAIN LEADS IN FUEL SAVING Salt Lake Division has again come back into its own at the head of divisions in fuel conservation work, having been awarded the silver trophy clap for showing the greatest improvement in fuel saving during the second quarter. This is the first award of this trophy, Los Angeles Division having won the previous trophy for three quarters. Marked improvement was shown on the San Joaquin and Tucson divisions and they were both strong contenders for first honors. Special mention was made by the Awarding Committee for the excellent fuel performance in both freight and passenger service on Shasta Division, and in freight service on the Los Angeles and Western divisions. LARGEST FISH OF SEASON IS LANDED IN HOTEL LOBBY The largest fish of the season was safely landed in the lobby of the Hotel Mt. Lassen at Susanville recently by Samuel M. Phelps, traveling auditor of Salt Lake Division and noted indoor fisherman, according to W. H. Graham, traveling agent out of Reno. In landing the large-scaled monster, which measured two arms in leng-th, Phelps nearly wrecked the hotel by tearing down pictures and draperies and knocking over furniture, Graham says. However I the fish was finally landed and the wreckage cleared away. But Sam's friends are cautioned not to mention the fish to him unless they are prepared to run. BERNEY AT SAN FRANCISCO N. P. Berney, supervisor of transportation on Northern District, has been temporarily assigned to duties on a special committee. During his absence, J. W. Corbett is acting as supervisor of transportation with headquarters at Sacramento, and W. S. Hoosen is acting division examiner in Corbett's place on Sacramento Division. .The Union Spirit Willie had been naughty and was being sent to bed by his mother, without his supper. He was naturally aggrieved at the feminine sex and tumbled between the sheets without a-word. Willie, she demanded, say your prayers. 4CI won't. :Don't you want to go to heaver Nah. I'm going with papa. men got to stick together these ' Pago, I qi~ SOUTHER-N PACIFIC BULLETIN CHAPTER XXIII Early Days as a Through Railroad Revenues for First Year-No Through Equipment Some Early Trips. THE laurel ties, with the spikes of various precious metals, were taken away after the ceremony and more businesslike substitutes put in their places. It was necessary to put in several last ties, as souvenir, hunters, who had refrained from defacing the polished ceremonial sleeper, tore several substitutes to pieces in their eagerness to carry away a souvenir. For months afterwards in all parts of the country miniature gold spikes were offered for sale as mernentos of the completion of America's first transcontinental railroad. The laurel tic had a place of honor in the General Offices of the Southern Pacific Company until it was burned up in the fire of April 18, 1906, which destroyed San Francisco. The spikes and the sledge with which Governor Stanford drove the golden spike and tapped to the world the story of the big job finished are in the Memorial Museum at Stanford University. I The banking house of Fisk & Hatch of New York, in a report to the bondholders of the Central Pacific Railroad Compar~y; under date of January 1, 1870, gives us a close-up picture of the Central Pacific in its infancy. March of Civilization During the past year, the report says, the great Pacific Railroad, uniting the two oceans by a continuous line of rail across the American continent, has become completed and through trains to the Pacific Coast have already become a familiar fact. And now before the words of skepticism and doubt have hardly passed from the lips that uttered them, the light and smoke of the locomotives are seen on the surnmit of the Rocky Mountains, in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, oil the plains beyond, on the crest of the Sierra and on the Pacific Slope, stretching day and night from the Atlantic to the Pacific, a pillar of fire and cloud, leading the march of civilization across the continent. Having negotiated the loans of the Central Pacific Railroad Company when the road was but a strip of October, 19.?7 rails, over which a man could walk in a day, struggling up the western slope of the Sierra, we now at the close of the year which has witnessed its completion, take pleasure in laying before you an exhibit of the present condition and prospects of the company. On the 10th of May last the track of the Central Pacific Railroad met that of the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, 1084 miles west from Omaha and 690 miles east from Sacramento, and the last spike was driven with imposing ceremonies. On the 12th of May the first through train from Omaha to Sacramento passed over the roads and on the 15th through trains commenced running regularly. Since that time the portion of the road between Promontory Surnmit and Ogden, 52 miles further east, having by an arrangement between the two companies and in conformity with a resolution of Congress, been constructed by the Union for the Central, becoming a part of the Central Pacific Railroad, and the junction of the two roads was fixed at or near Ogden, 1032 miles west from Omaha, and 742 miles cast from Sacramento, the line of the Central Pacific Railroad is therefore 742 miles 4 LittleH.orse of Steel Steel Mighty once were you, When urged with throttle, You puffed and turned your wheel. Little Horse of Steel Once proud Monarch of the Rail, Advancing! Ever surging forward, Helpful to a mighty Nation's weal. Little Horse of Steel, Grief should not be yours, That your usefulness is passed, Or beauty, rust and dust conceal. Little Horse of Steel, Rest content with your reward, Foward, irresistible goes progress, And to her, we all must yiel'. BARD OF CARLIN (A~cho, U~ko~) in length, extending from Sacramento, California, on the west and the junction with the Union Pacific at Ogden, Utah, on the east. During the month of September last the Western Pacific Railroad, connecting Sacramento with San Francisco, was completed, furnishing the final link in the main chain of the National Pacific Roads. The report refers to the beginning of construction of the San FranciscoPortland line, which was started in 1867 and of which 51 miles had been completed. Earnings and Equipment It also gives some interesting figures showing the revenue from operations. The earnings of the road from January I to May 1, 1869, derived almost wholly from local business with an average of less than 450 miles in operation, were as follows: Gross earnings, $1,306,943; operating expenses, $824,044; net earnings, $482,899. The earnings received from May 1 to December 31, the first eight months of the through connection, were: Gross earnings, $4,442,652; operating expenses, $2,198,197; net earnings, $2,244,455. Here are the receipts for the month of September, 1869, segregated as to sources. From passengers $302,259.29 From freight 262,250.32 From express 15,704.83 From mail 15,248.20 From wharf 1,250.95 From miscellaneous . .1,023.21 From telegraph 552.69 From sleeping cars 11,498.41 $609,787.90 The equipment of the road at the end of 1869 was as follows: 130 passenger cars, costing $544,400; 21 sleeping cars, costing $262,500; 160 locomotives, costing $2,240,000; 25 baggage, postoffice and express cars, costing $62,500; and 2572 freight cars, costing $3,214,800. And on machine shops, depots, etc., there was placed a value of $1,050,000, making a total investment in equipment of $7,374,200. From May 15, 1869, until September 8, 1869, through passengers on the Pacific Railroad made the trip between Sacramento and San Francisco by river steamer. To handle this business, the company operated 27 Page Elever -A river steamers of all sorts and sizes and a score of barges. The city of Sacramento, with the consent of the state legislature, had given the company 2800 feet of water front in the most central part of the town. This the company improved by the construction of docks and track covering the entire length. Three stAtionary engines, derricks and other appliances were installed to facilitate handling merchandise and heavy freight between the cars and water craft. On September 8, 1869, however, the railroad line between Sacramento and Oakland via Melrose was completed and Central Pacific trains with the new -transcontinental railroad. No Through Cars There was no through equipment on the first, transcontinental line in its early days. Union Pacific cars and Pullmans made the journey to Ogden only. There the passengers changed to Central Pacific cars and Silver Palace sleeping cars. The extra charge on the latter from Ogden to San Francisco was $6. Meals were served at certain stopping places. The usual charge was $1, although the eating house at Colfax made a specialty of 75c meals. Although the completion of the road cut down the time for the transcontinental journey to a few days and eliminated practically all the hardships with which that journey had been associated, whether made by land or water, the trip to the Pacific Coast was for a long time enough of an adventure for many of the travelers to set down their experiences in print. From these publications we get lifelike pictures of early day railroad travel. Before the completion of the railroad, a party of easterners visited the end of the Union Pacific track. It was considered an undertaking so perilous that when they reached Chicago on their return the mayor of Chicago officially welcomed them back to civilization. One early traveler, W. L. Humason, Hartford, Connecticut, set down his experiences under the heading of From Atlantic Surf to the Golden Gate. He describes the journey from Omaha to Ogden, where they changed for Promontory. Let him tell the story: Passenger Indignant Twelve o'clock came, also the train, and with no sleeping cars. We took seats and reached Promontory about daylight. We were at the end of the Union Pacific Railroad. Our further journeys were to be over the Central Pacific. Owing to a quarrel or misunderstanding between the superintendents of these two roads, we found that we could make no connection and could not leave the place until evening. The passengers became very indignant and there was some tall talking, which fell unpleasantly upon the ears of Mr. Marsh, a Central Pacific director, who had come to Ogden to meet us and had done all in his power Page Twelve SOUTHEP-14 PACIFIC BULLETW ~h e , .1y enct a, a - locomotive Conness-being turned e at Newcastl P cific on the hand turntabl thirty-crie ,a n _n,.. The picture was probably taken shortly after the locomotive made its;maiden trip at Sacramento on March 17. 1865. It was the company's first typical freight locomotive and was considered a wonder because it could pull eighteen small freight cars. Newcastle was then the terminus of the line. Men with dump carts can be seen working on the fill approaching the big trestle which was later filled in. Newcastle station now stands on this location to remedy the matter and prevent the delay. The officials of the Union Pacific ordered us out of their cars, saying they had use for them. They had carried us to the end of their road and they had nothing more to do with us only to discharge us. Out we were turned into the hot sun with no shade, no house, surrounded by no comforts -nothing but sand, alkali and sage brush. The road had been finished so far ahead of time that the Central Pacific had no sleeping cars and would have none until July. Bed Among Mail Bags Tfie train finally arrived. He tells how he spent the night. I went forward into the baggage-car, rolled up into my blankets, cast my lot among the mail bags and slept soundly until morning. I awoke covered and choked with dust. One feature of our journey not mentioned was the interesting sight of large numbers of Chinamen constantly at work upon the road, making the bed wider and the track more secure. These Chinamen are not to be immediately discharged, but are to continue their labor until the Central is made in every respect a first-class road. He continues: As we descended the mountains, the snow storm turned into a rain storm and we reached Sacramento in the midst of it; took the steamer and sailed down the Sacramento River ' looking with wonder at the immense piles of salmon that lined the shores at every landing. We took on board great loads of them, which had just been caught in the river. We were also surprised at the advanced stage of the crops and vegetables along the shore. Strawberries had long been plentiful and wheat was almost ready for harvest. Mr. Hurnason did not like the commissary arrangements provided on the desert. Here is his description: The eating houses at the stations which had hitherto been good now seemed to partake of the nature of the country, consisting of miserable shanties with tables dirty and waiters not only dirty but saucy. Tea-like size biscuits made without soda, but plenty alkali. The butter was too venerable to be approached. The smell of the fried bacon reminded one of the slaughter houses of the ancients. Knives and forks may have been made of English steel, but I would pity the men who would be so rash as with rasp or file or scouring sand to undertake to work his way through incrustations dark and deep in the vain attempt to find it. Here is an interesting side-light of the trip: At another station we met a crowd armed with rifles, shot-guns, revolvers, horse pistols, etc. Upon inquiry, we learned that this was a vigilance committee. They had hung a man the day before from a telegraph pole for committing a fiendish outrage upon the only respectable woman in the place. In Salt Lake City they attended services at the Tabernacle and heard a sermon in which the men were cautioned against tight, fine-texture pants with broad stripes and silk stovepipe hats. The women were exhorted to nurse their own babies and to eschew the pannier and Grecian bend. Brin.- the Wife Here are some extracts from an account of another trip made a little later when the railroad was running with sufficient smoothness for the company to invite the railroad agents of America to make the journey. This writer warns the traveler: Let no man make this continental trip without his wife. Some of us in thoughtlessness or otherwise left ours at home. It was an oversight, a mistake, and, were it not that others of our party had been more thoughtful and wise, much of our pleasure would have been wanting. The journey is too vast and the scenery is too varied to be enjoyed fully without such genial influences. The writer notes that The irnp~alpable dust stirred up by the rushing train penetrates through the double windows of our cars and *produres sore throats and lips. The train stopped at Summit,and October, Z927 T ill rr p p P b a sl v IT a tl n t~2 the passengers disembarked and were given an opportunity to view Donner Lake. The impression made on them may be judged by the fact that spontaneously hats were removed and the entire company joined in singing the Doxology. He thus describes the journey's end: Arrived at Oakland safely, and, passing on the ferry boats, the lights of San Francisco, five miles across the bay, presented a beautiful sight, the city being built on a side hill, giving at one view the gas lights of numerous streets. (To be continued) SOLICITATION WORK TOPIC AT DIVISION MEETINGS For the purpose of discussing salesmanship methods to interesting prospective patrons in Southern Pacific passenger and freight service, and to promote a closer understanding between employes and division officers as to the essential points in a high standard railroad transportation service, meetings were held during the month at Fresno and Klamath Falls attended by representatives of both the operating and traffic departments. The meeting at Fresno on September 12 was attended by 112 officers and employes, mostly agents and others of the station forces, from points on the San Joaquin and Stockton divisions. H. A. Hinshaw, assistant freight traffic manager, acted as chairman. He directed his remarks particularly to the agents and those dealing directly with the public over the counter, pointing out the fact that revenues had dropped down at a tremendous rate since the middle of July and urged everyone to be on their toes in adding to or regaining lost business. Other officers who spoke were: A. F. Bowles, San Joaquin division superintendent; W. C. Fitch, freight claim agent; F. W. Pope, auditor of freight accounts; Garnett King, assistant passenger traffic manager; Win. Wilson, superintendent Stockton Division; H. E. Ish, district freight agent, Fresno; W. T. Plummer, district passenger agent, Fresno; 1. T. Sparks, freight and passenger agent, Merced; S. C. Beane, district freight and passenger agent, Stockton; and several agents from both divisions. There was also a very good attendance at the meeting at Klamath Falls, September 13. J. H. Mulchay, assistant freight traffic manager, gave an interesting talk on freight solicitation and the value of courtesy. Other speakers included: J. M. Scott, assistant passenger traffic manager; A. S. Rosenbaum, gerieral agent; T. J. Foley, assistant superintendent, Shasta Division, and H. A. Snrague, trainmaster at Klamath Falls. Fair Enough A negro laborer, doing a hauling job, was informed that he could not get his money until he had submitted an iternized statement. After much meditation, he evolved the following bill: Three comes and three goes at fourbitsawent, $3. -Timely Pointers. October, 19z7 . SOUTHEP-N P.ALCIFIC BULLETIN Charles E. Fish, assistant engineer at Ogden, inset at right, is scout master of Troop 20. the largest BY Scout organization in Utah The picture above shows part of the scouts' club room at Ogden. Paul Bieler, draftsmanat Ogden, inset at left. is scoutmaster of Troop 2, i Iso a thriving Boy Scout organization to which several sons of S. P. employes at Ogden are members. S. P. Men Big Brothers to Ogden Youths By G. L. SNIVELY Bulletin Correspondent, Ogden UNLIKE the majority, worrying over the outcome of modern youth, Charles E. Fish, assistant engineer, and Paul S. Bieler, draftsman, at Ogden, are staunch supporters of the coming railroaders. Mr. Fish enjoys the distinction of being Scoutmaster of the largest troop and of having the finest clubrooms in Utah. Fish has been associated with scouting since 1919 and during that time he has come in contact with 512 boys. The present strength of troop 20 is 64 boys. Former members are scattered from New York to China and one is at present in the general office. In the club there is a fully equipped gymnasium and a collection of minerals and fossils that is held priceless. While Mr. Fish's main hobby is boys, lie is an ardent collector of old coins, stamps, minerals and fossils. Of his great success he says: The boy in the man has to meet the man in the boy.11 Mr. Bieler was appointed Scoutinaster of Troop 2, in 1925, and since then has given time unstintedly to his boys. At the present time they are working for a new clubroom in which to house their collections and equipment. Mr. Bieler has trained 55,young men of whom he is justly proud. Annually he leads his troop up the slope of Mt. Ogden, 10,000 feet above the sea level, where huge flares are lighted. This feature is a great advertisement, for the flares are watched for miles around. Fathers of nine of Bieler's scouts are employed by the Company at Ogden. The boys taught leadership and reliance will be the real men tomorrow says Bieler. FIREMAN DISCOVERS THE BODY OF DROWNED BOY The body of Verne Sullenger, search for which had been made for five days after the youngman haddrowned in Pacheco Slough, was discoveredby C. P. Ingham, fireman of Western Division. Ingham was sitting in the cab on Train No. 81. The engine was waiting oil the drawbridge over the Slough a short distance west of Avon station and looking down into the water Ingham saw the body floating in the shallow water. He notified Conductor E. A. Lar Rieu who advised the local authorities. Young Sullenger was the nephew of C. C. Sullenger, towerinan in Clinton Tower on the East Bay Electric Division. PEOPLE CAN HEAR AND UNDER STAND THIS MAN Stationmaster Guy Hassen at Safi Jose is not only a courteous and accommodating employe, but is notable for the clearness and distinctness of his announcements when calling attention to departure of trains, according to a patron who uses Southern Pacific service to a considerable extent. The comments as to Mr. Hasse-i's work were overhead by one of Southern Pacific's engineers at San Jose, who brought them to the attention of the Bulletin. Clear enunciation is indeed commendable, both on the part of statioilmasters in announcing departure of trains or on the part of trainmen when announcing arrival at stations. Page Thirteen CHAPTER XXIV brussels carpet and, as above stated, Palace Sleeping Cars-Description of has an elegant appearance. It fur a Trip in One-Early Time- nishes ample sleeping accommoda table and Freight and tions for 46 passengers. Jackson & Passenge r Tariffs. Sharp of Wilmington, Delaware, are the makers. From the Pacific Tourist Guide of 1879, under the heading, Palace Car Life on the Pacific Railroad, we get a picture of comfort that makes one wonder whether they built better cars in those days or only wrote more en thusiastically about what they had. Perfect Comfort This: In no part of the world is travel made so easy and comfortable as on the Pacific Railroad. To trav elers from the East it is a constant delight. To ladies and families it is accompanied with absolutely no fa tigue or discomfort. One lives at home in the Palace Car with as much true enjoyment as in the home draw ing-room, and, with the constant change of scenery afforded from the car window, it is far more enjoyable than the saloon of a fashionable steamer. For an entire week or more, as the train leisurely crosses the con tinent, the little section and berth al lotted to you, so neat and clean, so nicely furnished and kept, becomes your home. Here you sit and read, play your games, indulge in social conversation and glee, and, if fortu rate enough to possess good company of friends to join you, the overland tour becomes an intense delight. Night time comes, and then, as your little berths are made up and you snugly cover yourself up under double blankets (for the night air is always crisp and cold), perhaps you will often witness the sight of a prairie fire or the vivid flashes of lightning,-some of natures greatest scenes and far more fearful and awe inspiring. Lulled to Sleep 'Then, turning to rest, you Will sleep amid the easy roll of the car as sweetly and refreshingly as ever upon the home bed. It is impossible to tell of the pleasures and joys of the Palace ride you will have five days. It will make you so well accustomed to car life you feel that, when you drop upon the wharf of San Francisco, you have left genuine comfort be hind, and even the hotel with its cozy i CP A~ me- ~ ~ ing car, gives a detailed description of it: It is slightly wider than the ordinary passenger cars, and, in passing through the snow sheds of the mountains, rubbed the timbers occasionally. Entering one of the doors, the visitor walks into the drawing room, which is handsomely furnished. The woodwork is walnut and birds-eye maple. Red Silk Upholstering Next to the drawing room is a room containing two beds, double and single. Then comes a department with seats, which at first glance appear to be arranged as in an ordinary pas senger coach, except, perhaps, that the y are further apart. These are upholstered in red silk plush, and are arranged in such a manner that two of them, when occasion arises, form a luxurious berth, wide enough to accommodate two. Other berths are so constructed that they can be held in position against the roofs and sides of the car by springs when not required for sleeping purposes, and, when so held in position, their presence can scarcely be detected. The backs of the seats and the woodwork generally are silvermounted. Along the sides of the car about eight feet apart are looking glasses, and, in a little recess, small lamps for the convenience of passengers desirous of reading while lying in their berths. Several fine lamps suspended from the skylight furnish all the light usually required at night. ' , Passing further along, the visitor comes to another state-room also containing two berths. Opposite to it is a linen closet, and at the extreme end of the car a wash-room conveniently fitted up. The entire car is carpeted with November, i9j7 parlor and cheerful fire has not its full recompense. It is impossible to order a section for one person alone, and the dictum of sleeping car arrangements at Council Bluffs requires all who come to take what berths are assigned; but if you will wait over one day at Council Bluffs or Kansas City you can make a choice of the whole train and secure the most desirable berths. ,,when your section is once located at either terminus of either transcontinental road, generally you will find the same section reserved for you at Ogden. or Deming through passengers naving usually ihe preference of best berths or the same position as previously occupied. Bearing date of September 6, 1869, the Central Pacific published a condensed time-table-a complete and simple combined freight and passenger tariff and train schedule. Service in 1869 From this we learn that there were through passenger trains every day and that once a Week, on Wednesday, the Atlantic Hotel Express left San Francisco for the East. For the ordinary through passenger train the time between San Francisco and Omaha was four days and four hours; to Chicago, five days and six hours; and to New York, seven days. The Atlantic Express, however, made the trip to Omaha in three days and eleven hours; to Chicago, in four and one-half days; and to New York, in six days. The fare, first class, to Chicago was $130; to New York, $150; to St. Louis, $129; and to New Orleans, $162. Passengers were allowed one hundred pounds of baggage free and the charge on excess baggage between San Francisco and Omaha was $15 per hundred pounds. The rates on Silver Palace Sleeping Cars, which ran between San Francisco and Ogden, were: San Francisco to Wadsworth, double lower berth, $2; double upper, $2; state-room, $5. To Carlin or Elko, $4 for the lower, $4 for the upper, and $10 for a state-room. To Ogden, the double berth cost $6 and the state-room $12. Freight rates from San Francisco were _also quoted, on first-class, second class and third-class trains. Through freight from San Francisco to Ogden, first class, was $2.75 one Page Dew* ~,CITT'rKVD~J nArTrtr' 1PkTT1 T VrTNr The first fast overland passengrvtrain becween San Francisco and Chicago shown in this picture taken at Cape Horn in the Sierra shortly after the transcontinental line was connected in 0 ember t869, was called the Atlantic and Pacific Express.- , t made the trip in i26Y2 hours. Today the Overland Limited runs on a 63-hour schedule- There were no dining uaadrs on the early day express and stops were made by the east and west bound trains for meals at Ogden, Terrace. Toano, Elko, Carlin, Argenta, Humboldt, sworth, Cisco. junction (now Roseville) and Sacramento. At Cape Horn a stop was made so e 5 could view the deep chasm of the American River Canyon. A tunnel, known as Panama Canal. has long since caused the abandonment of the sharp =!Urn curve. Noce that the observation car was open air. hundred pounds; second class, $2.50; means, all the aids granted, and were associates all his stock for 12c on the and third class, $2.10 To Chicago, more than $3,000,000 in debt, for dollar. This was in April, 1871. He first class, $7.50; second class, $6.20; which they were personally liable. sold it, however, on credit. His asso and third class, $5.20. They had given nearly nine years of ciates didn't have the money to pay. A section of the time-table is de- their time, all their fortune and all He left his stock in escrow in the voted to the tariff on livestock, to be their credit to the undertaking. They Bank of California with instructions fed, watered and taken care of by had a road to Ogden, which was sub- for its delivery to Huntington and the owner. Between San Francisco and ject to liens securing the government others upon payment by them on the Ogden the tariff was $300 a car, and and the first mortgage bonds and agreed basis. Crocker returned two to Chicago $710 a car. The carload they owed $3,000,000 personally. years later restored to health and de rate on wagons, wagon stock, agricul- Representing their equity in the road, sirous of going into business again. tural implements, machinery and they held all the stock, but the stock He asked for his money and was told household goods owners to load and then had little market value and could that they did not have it and could unload, from San Francisco to not have been sold at that time for not get it. Ogden, $300 a car; to Chicago, $670 one-third enough to discharge the In telling about it later, Crocker a car; and to New York, $800 a car. $3,000,000 of unsecured indebtedness. describes the situation in 1873. On One page of the time-table was de- They had this stock, their indomitable making demand for his money he was t voted to stage connections, giving the will, their credit and their faith in referred by Stanford to Huntington. mileage of the stage route, the time ultimate success. Of these assets He asked Huntington for the money: of leaving, time occupied by the tri credit alone was available and that Well, said Huntington, Charlie, we P and the fare. The stage trip from alone bridged the chasm of bank- haven't got it. We cannot get it. Stockton to Yosemite Valley cost $20. ruptcy ahead of them. The world be- It was right in the flurry then of The stage from Marysville to Port- lieved them rich and they let the 1873, the Jay Cooke flurry, and they land, Oregon, was $40. It cost $50 world think so. could not get the money. I had t from the Central Pacifle station at Would Have Sold Cheap $60,000 in the bank in California. I I Winnemucca to Boise City. Governor Stanford, testifying be- tried to get it here (New York) to t The time-table was issued in the fore the Pacific Railroad Commission, buy some Wells Fargo & Company's name of the Central Pacific, Western said when the roads met at Promon- stock and I couldn't get it. They Pacific and California & Oregon Rail- tory that his own account at the Bank would not send it by telegraph be ways. It was Western Pacific from of California was overdrawn $1,500,- cause they did not have it to spare. San Francisco to Sacramento; Cali- 000 and that he didn't count the stock So I took back my stock and tore up fornia & Oregon from Sacramento to of any particular value except as the papers. Marysville, and Central Pacific from viving them control of the property at Crocker on Leave Sacramento to Ogden. that time. He said they would have Huntington, he said, suggested that The principal offices of the corn- sold it for 10c on the dollar. Asked he come back and share equally with pany were 415 California Street, when he changed his mind about the them in all the projects they had San Francisco; 56 and 58 K Street, value of the stock, he answered: started during his absence. We will Sacramento; and 54 William Street, About as soon as I made up my mind consider, said Huntington, that you New York City. that we couldn't sell it. We had to have been on a two-years' leave of The officers whose names appear on stay in and work it out. When the absence, and then, when we want a this early time-table were A. N. road was completed we were all tired rest, we will take a leave of absence. Towne, General Superintendent; J. and exhausted.and would have been It is also in the record that a year Corning, Assistant General Superin- glad to sell out for almost anything. after this the Huntington, Hopkins tendent; T. H. Goodman, General As a matter of fact, two years after and Crocker stock, giving control of Freight and Passenger Agent, Sacra- the driving of the last spike, Charles the railroad, was offered to a syndi mento; T. Hosmer, Ticket Agent, San Crocker, whose health had broken cate headed by D. 0. Mills at 20c on Francisco; and `H. B. Eddy, Ticket down and who had been ordered to the dollar and turned down because Agent, Sacramento. take a long rest, actually sold to his the risk was too great. CHAPTER XXV NOTE 43- 1 would not have been willing at When they had failed in the early the time the Central Pacific road was finished Associates Deeply in Debt When Lines to take a block of the stock as a gift and be Part of the enterprise to interest the Meet-Road Heavily Mort.-aged and liable for the debts as they then existed. Tes- moneyed men of California in their Stock Valuable Only for Control- timonv Alfred A. Cohen, Pacific Railway Co., project, the Big Four went ahead and p. 2394. Suez Canal Competition. The first dividend was paid in 1873. Up to did the best possible with their own When the junction of the two roads the time of the completion of the road we paid resources. When they thought these was made and the road in operation in everything we could get our hands on to were exhausted-after reaching the com the associates had expended all their bwlete it. Testimony Collis P. Huntington, California line-and they again failed F Page Twelve November, z9j7 6 i SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN to get the help of outside capital, they renewed demands on their own resources and ingenuity and completed the road. When the road was completed and they found themselves deeply in debt, with only a heavilymortgaged road and a lot of unsaleable stock to show for their work and investment, they proceeded to make the stock valuable by making the railroad pay. This presented just as many difficulties as the original construction. Successful as builders and financiers, the associates shot wide of the mark in some of their calculations as to the source of future profits. When they,were climbing the Sierra the immediate lure was the trade with Nevada. This hope proved a good deal of a bubble, which was deflated, if not utterly burst, by the time the road was open to Truckee. The trade of the Salt Lake Valley never came up to expectations, although it was this that largely prompted the costly haste of the last summer of construction. These were but incidents, however, to the real prize. Fropfl' its very inception the Pacific Railroad had been heralded as a highway for, the trade of the 'Orient, which would not, however, be available until the last spike had been driven and the trains were running through. Suez Canal Competes The very month the road was completed the Suez Canal was opened to the ships of the world. There was no moving picture newsreels in those days to keep people advised of progress and development in far places. Governor Stanford told the Pacific Railroad Commission, We were very much disappointed with regard to the business with Asia. We were very busy building our road and we had not taken much account of what was going on in the matter of the construction of the Suez Canal. I think that the whole country anticipated that when the road was built there would be a great business with Asia, but the opening up of the Suez Canal during the very season that we completed our road disappointed us in that anticipated business. The associates won out in spite of these disappointments and failures because, while they-had shared in the popular pastime of dreaming, they also had made the most of every opportunity that ca e t~ their grasp. Although the bPg prizes they had expected failed to materialize, there had developed during the course of construction a local business which was already of important proportions, and which was increasing as the communities served by the railroads grew as a result of that service. One of the big things the railroad did and which nobody seems to have forecast was to make possible the e~tablishment of cities at points removed from water transportation. We accept this now as a matter of course just as we accept the railroad. Until the railroad came, cities had to be either on harbors or rivers, and, in fostering new cities, new communities and new industries, the new railroad was eventually to more than make up for those prizes that had proved to be merely mira es. (To be continued) Supervisors Hold Annual Session at Sacramento MANY topics pertaining to problems affecting the improvement in supervision and in increasing the output of various shops, came up for discussion at the Fourth Annual Convention of the Association of Supervisors of Mechanics, held at Sacramento October 10 to 12, inclusive. A feature of the convention, which was attended by 21 delegates from twelve points on Pacific Lines, was the banquet held at Hotel Sacramento. More than 130 attended this affair, including officers, invited guests, delegates and their wives. President A 0. Herrick presided and addresses were made by Mayor Goddard of Sacramento; C. J. Galloway, secretary- treasurer; T. Ahern, assistant general manager; Geo. B. Hart, assistant to general superintendent of motive power; H. C.,Venter, superintendent of shops; Ellis Purlee, a humorous lecturer of Sacramento; J. L. Baner of Los Angeles; and F. J. Gutsch of El Paso. During the banquet entertainment was furnished by Mr. Jovovich, Mrs. Williams and Miss Irna Cram. Dancing followed the banquet. A theater party was the entertainment feature one evening, and on the final day of the convention the delegates were taken through the large geniral shops at Sacramento and on a tour of points of interest in the territory surrounding Sacramento. The committee handling arrangements for the convention was composed of G. M. Crocker, 0. B. Whi ple, Jos. Johnson, Sam Woods and 1~ W. Cram. Delegates attending the convention were: - J. L. Baner and F. E. Royce, Los Angeles; J. G. Aye, Fresno; C. Charboneau, Sparks; G. Christon, F. Bull and C. J. Galloway, San Francisco; H. J. Poirier, Ogden; N. Hansen and C. A. McClarity, Oakland; M. W. Cram, J. M. Kinney, L. W. Holmes and W. L. Williams, Sacramento; H. Osborn, Roseville; J. W. Taylor, Portland; L. E. Day, Dunsmuir; F. J. Gutsch and J. J. Froussard, El Paso. VETERAN ASS'T ENGINEER IS CALLED BY DEATH J?hn C. Christy, former assistant engineer in construction and location work, died at his home in San Francisco October 10. He was 67 years old and started his railroad career with the Pennsylvania Central in 1880. Later he was with other railroads before joining the engineering staff of Southern Pacific in 1906 under the late Chief Engineer Win. Hood. Mr. Christy was the first man to reach Galveston after the big flood on September 8, 1900. In an effort to determine means of rescue and reclamation, he managed to navigate the turbulent waters and was the first engineer to reach the stricken city. Besides his widow, Mrs. Iron Christy, he is survived by a son, Barclay Christy. Funeral services were held at San Francisco October 12. CHEERFUL AIR OF SANTA CRUZ STATION IS PRAISED An air of cheerful industry pervades every nook of the whole plant, states an article appearing recently in the Santa Cruz Cruz News commenting on the service extended by Southern Pacific through its able staff of station assistants under the direction of Agent James Doig. Y~l N Fourth Annual Banquet of the Association of Supervisors of Mechanics. Pacific Lines, was held at the Hotel Sacramento, October x. as a feature of the asisociation's annual convention. NOT'e Iber, 191?7 Page Thirseeq SOUTHEP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN CHAPTER XXVI Railroads of the West in 1869; Marys ville a Center of Activity; The California Pacific. DRIVING of the last spike at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869, uniting the Central Pa cific and Union Pacific- in the first transcontinental railroad, ended the first epoch in western railroad build ing. For six years the construction forces of the Central Pacific, at times numbering 16,000 men, had battled their way against nature's obstacles over the high granite peaks of the Sierra and across the and stretches of Nevada and Utah. Records in track-laying were established that never since have been equaled. Both the Central Pacific and Union Pacific forces were working at fever heat in their efforts to add all possible mile age to their lines, and, when the cere monies were held at Promontory, there ended the greatest railroad con struction race of all time. On that day there was -less than four hundred miles of railroad in operation in the entire West, aqide from the main line of the Central Pacific. There was not a mile of railroad in operation in Oregon. One company had completed a few, miles of grading in Portland and vicinity, but the first twenty miles of the Oregon Central ( East Side ) Company were not in operation until December, 1869. No Railroad in L. A. Los Angeles was without a railroad line, although work was going forward on the 22-mile line between Los Angeles and Wilmington, which was opened for traffic October 26, 1869. Before continuing with the story of construction work on the Central Pacific and the Southern Pacific following the connection with the Union Pacific at Promontory, it may be well to glance back over the railroad map of California and review the activities of the several smaller railroad projects, all of which in time became a part of the Central and Southern Pacific companies. During the year 1857 the center of activities in m ' atters pertaining to railroad construction in California shifted from Sacramento to Marys NOTE 44-Gaston's Centennial History of Oregon. Poge Ten ville, where two propositions were placed before the people for consideration and financial sul)port. The first of these grew out of the failure of the Sacramento Valley Rail Road Company to carry through its original plans, which were the construction of a railroad from Sacramento to Marysville. Construction had been stopped at Folsom, about 22 miles from Sacramento, to which point was operated California's first railroad line in February, 1856. Failure of the Sacramento Valley company to continue on to Marysville led Col. C. L. Wilson, who had been one of the contractors on the road, to go to Marysville and interest some of its citizens in forming the California Central Railroad Companv, incorporated on April 21, 1857. Construction was started the following year and the road was opened to Lincoln, via Junction (now Roseville), 18.5 miles, during October, 1861. Yuba Railroad Insolvency of the company followed shortlv, and, in November, 1832, the Yuba Rail Road Company was incornorated, which carried on the work from Lincoln north as fast as funds could be obtained, until the Central Pacific interests came to the rescue and completed the-line into Marysville in 1868. The line had been opened to Wheatland June 27, 1866, and to Yuba two years later, but it was not until June 1, 1869, that trains were run over the through line from Sacramento to Marysville. Central Pacific had been operating this line since October, 1867, and during the following year abandoned that Dart of the road from Roseville to Folsom, in lieu of their own shorter route from Sacramento to Roseviae. Trains continued to be o- erated over the Dioneer Sacramento Valley Railroad to Shingle Springs, but it was in March, 1888, before the line was extended to Placerville. While Col. Wilson was interesting the people of Marysville in his line from Folsom, a second proposition was being launched by DeWitt C. Haskins and Dr. D. W. C. Rice, both residents of Marysville. Their plan was to construct a railroad from Marysville, directly across the Sutter Basin to Knight's Landing, and on to Davisville (now Davis), Suisun and Vallejo, from which point San Francisco could be reached by boat. The residents of Marysville and Yuba County looked with considerable favor on this project and the county was authorized by the Lesgislature in 1857 to issue bonds to the extent of $200,000 to aid in the construction. This led to the incorporation of the San Francisco and Marysville Railroad Company on November 9, 1857, the first company entering into the history of the California Pacific Railroad, whose line from Sacramento to South Vallejo was later to become a strong competitor of the Central Pacific, and which threatened to build a,competing line to Ogden. Work on the road was started during the summer of 1859 and the grading completed almost to Suisun, about 60 miles, in July, 1860. As soon as work on the line was under way, Haskins, who had the contract for constructing and equipping the road, left for the East to purchase the rails and other materials. In the fall of 1859 he reported negotiations closed, but for some reason the materials were not shipped. In the face of events preceding the Civil War, it is probable that Haskins was unable to arrange for financing his purchases. With the passing of 1860 construction work closed down and little more was heard of the enterprise. Plan Road to S. F. During the latter Dart of 1864, after the Central Pacific had placed in operation the first section of its railroad from Sacramento to Newcastle, and the construction of a transcontinental ,Ii;ie seemed to be assured, D. C. Haskins,with some new associates and a stronger financial backing, embarked on another project-that of building a line from Sacramento, via Davisville, to Vallejo, with steamboat connection to San Francisco, and completing the previous line from Marysville to Davisville as a branch. This proposition, which led to the incorporation of the Sacramento and San Francisco Rail Road Company in December, 1864, was looked upon as a good financial venture, as the line would open up the most direct route between San Francisco, Sacramento and Marysville. The only competitors December, 19?7 1.4-1 11a 4I I in the field were the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad opened in Jawuary, 1864, and the Western Pacific Railroad Company, which was about to build from San Jose to Sacramento via Niles. However, the company appears to have acquired no physical properties or accomplished any construction before it gave way to the California Pacific Rail Road Company, which carried the project to completion. Cal-P Opened As in the previous organizations, Haskins was one of the most active participants. The California Pacific Rail Road Company, more familiarly known to early-day railroaders as the Cal-P, was incorporated January, 10, 1865. Construction was commenced at Vallejo during December, 1866, and the first rails were laid at the same place on April 10, 1868. The main line was completed to Washington, on the west side of the Sacramento River opposite Sacramento, in November, 1868, and the Marysville Branch was completed as far as Yuba City, on the west side of the Feather River opposite Marysville, in November of the following year. The steamer New World was placed in commission between San Francisco and Vallejo on January 22, 1869. A speedier boat, the D. C. Haskins, was built in New York' during 1869 and 1870, but floundered in the Atlantic off Cape Hatteras on itr, way to California. Another railroad was operating in this same vicinity, the Napa Valley Rail Road, the first few miles between Napa City and Suscol having been placed in operation in June, 1865. The parties interested in this company, which was incorporated March 26, 1864, appear to have been in no way connected with the companies making up the Califoyni Pacific. It was proposed to build a railroad from a point on the San Francisco and Marysville line north to Calistoga, about 35 miles. Chancellor Hartson was president of the company. Napa Mud Lark The first construction was financed largely from funds received from the subscribers to the capital stock, in which Napa County joined with its citizens in supporting the enterprise. Suscol was to be the southern terminus of the line until the Marysville road was completed. This point was at the head of navigation on Napa Creek, although passengers journeying to Napa City prior to the opening of the railroad had the choice of taking a stage from Suscol or continuing on another boat, commonly known as The Mud Lark. The contractors, Patterson & Gray, broke ground on November 21, 1864, and had the grade ready for the ties the following January. The rails-, purchased in England, were slow in coming, and it was not until June 20, 1865, that the first trial trip was made, the engine in use being of the Pony type constructed by Casebolt & Company of San Francisco. Opening of the road was formally celebrated December, z927 SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLFT19 on July 10, 1865, and the following day the 4% miles of line was opened for regular traffic. During March, 1867, the company started to extend the line from Napa City to Calistoga, about 26% miles. Trains were operated to Calistoga during August, 1868. The last see'tion from Suscol south to connection with the Marysville line at Napa Junction was opened for traffic during January, 1869. The expected traffic over the new road failed to materialize. Payments of interest on the construction notes could not be met and, a few months after the road was opened, a decree of foreclosure was obtained and the property sold to Wm. F. Roelofson and James M. Ryder on May 27, 1869. About two weeks later, Roelofson and Ryder, who were construction contractors for the California Pacific, sold the road to the latter company. Seek Bigger Field With the main line of the California Pacific completed f romVallejo to Sacramento, except bridging the river, and the Marysville branch well under W*ay, those in control of the company decided to enlafge the scope of their operations by extending lines up the Napa, Santa Rosa and Russian River valleys. To this end the California Pacific Railroad Extension Company was incorporated April 14, 1869. One part of the proposed plan was met in the purchase of the Napa Valley Rail Road's line to Calistoga, and, although construction contracts were issued to Roelofson and Ryder, no new work was done. A reorganization was effected by the California Pacific and, on January 1, 1870, the following directors and officers were elected: DirectorsEdward H. Green, London, Eng.; Julius May and Rudolph Sulsbach, Frankfort, Germany; M. K. Jessup, New York City; John P. Jackson, Eugene L. Sullivan, F. G. Atherton, John Parrott and Milton S. Latham, San Francisco. Officers - John P. Jackson, president; Eugene L. Sullivan, treasurer; L. C. Fowler, secretary; and D. C. Haskin, general superintendent. The principal offices were at Vallejo. . The sprinkling of foreign element in the directorate probably came about through the influence of Latham. Following his term in the U. S. Senate in 1863, he went abroad. While stopping in Italy during 1865, he was called to England and was offered the presidency and general management of the London and San Francisco Bank, which he accepted. On his return to NOTE 45-Poor's Manual of Railroads 187172. PRINCIPAL RAILROADS OF CENTRAL CALIFORNIA IN 1870 o Cloverdale I- c2 Calisto8a Santa OSA, Vacavi Napa un Donohue [cla Oakla,cIR.R San Franci ale Oroville i In. Operation May 1869 ---------- In Cperat;on Llan. 1870 ..... -xx ProjectedLlnes Washed oufai7dAbandoned Dec. 1871 Rebuilt on lVew Locatl~17 1891 1KhightsLandin8v1R` Woodland Cisco Yuba City Marysville Dutch Flat Yu ba Wheatland q Lin oln burn N Roseville Placerville I V. +0 1,~Folsorn 5-~-* hingle Springs Davi pac, 1Track betwew Folsom,7170, ,9osev1)1e,4ba170b1e0'1868 Ir alt i 3focjvr Stockton 6,-Lathrop , +i. Haywar~;_~e~ ' acy -V. 0 Menlo Park San Jose Santa Clara a Pajaro Valley R. R. o Milton t+ 'vqpodesto Page Eleven This picture taken during 1861, shows a train of the California Central leaving Folsom (in the background) for Lincoln. The road was an extension of the pioneer Sacramento Valley Railroad. In 1867 it became a part of the Central Pacific and during the following year that part of the line between Folsom and Roseville was abandoned and the track removed. This view was taken from the bluffs overlooking the American river. According to D. L. Joslyn. locomotive historian at Sacramento Shops. the California Central'had five second hand locomotives built by Richard Norris. The one in the picture was the best of the five and was afterwards C. P. NO. 93, the Oronoco.- After the Central Pacific took the road over the gauge was changed from 5 feet to 4 feet, 7Y2 inches. San Francisco, he took an active part in financing the California Pacific and several other railroad projects. The main line of the California Pacific was opened into Sacramento on January 15, 1870, crossing the track of the Central Pacific near the foot of I street. During the next few weeks the last portion of the Marysville branch was opened from Yuba City to the terminus of the California Northern at Ninth and J streets, Marysville. This date, March, 1870, marks the completion of the California Pacific. Rival of the C. P. With the railroad now in full operation and doing a fair amount of local business, the parties then guiding the destinies of the company determined to carry out the work which the Extension Company had planned to do, and also to embark on another project that would have, had they succeeded, made of the California Pacific a system outrivaling its only competitor, the Central Pacific. Durm the spring of 1871, the com pfl g any Oated in England an issue of about $1,500,000 income bonds. With these funds the boats of the California Steam Navigation Company were purchased April 1, 1871, and that company went out of existence after 17 years of activity in handling a large share of the freight and passenger business on the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. At about the same time, the California Pacific took over the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad, and also the San Francisco and Humboldt Bay Company. The first property consisted of about 23 miles of road extending from Donohue Landing on Petaluma Creek north to Santa Rosa, while the latter company apparently had little more than primary franchise rights to construct a railroad into the territory which the California Pacific interests de sired to tap with branch lines or feeders Under the name of the ~alifornia Pacific Railroad Eastern Extension Page Twelve Company, which was incorporated May 23, 1871, the last and greatest project of the California Pacific was launched. Capital stock of the company was fixed at $50,000,000 and was subscribed to by practically the same directors mentioned previously. The proposed line, none of which was ever constructed, was to be as follows: Commencing at Davisville (now Davis), thence passing through the Sacramento Valley, and bearing to the northeast, entering Oregon near Goose Lake. From the latter point the line was to continue north to Christmas Lake, Oregon, and thence east into Idaho, and thence southerly, terminating at Ogden. Two branches were also contemplated. One from the big bend in the Pitt River near the 41st parallel westerly to a connection with the Oregon and California Railroad; and the other to connect with the same joad, branching from the main line Aear Christmas Lake. Total length was about 943 miles. Shortly after the California Pacific took possession of the boats which virtually gave them control of the local river navigation, and the San Francisco and North Pacific and the Humboldt Bay railroads, it was announced that Latham and his associates, who held the controlling interest in the company, had sold the major share of the company's stock to the Central Pacific. The agreement was made about August 1, 1871. (To be continued) STOCKTON EMPLOYES GIVE AID TO WOMAN TRAVELER Station employes at Stockton recently performed a ve-r.. v thoughtful e, and generous service w en they came to the financial assistance of a woman who had purchased a ticket to New York. The ticket was purchased from Ticket Clerk Barnett, who learned that the woman, who was hurr in funeral of Y g east to attend the her mother, would have only 75 cents left after purchasing her ticket. Barnett started a subscription list, which was contributed to by station employes, draymen, news dealers and American Railway Express employes, and presented the woman with a substantial sum to take care of her on the long trip. Arrangements were also made to hold the Overland a few minutes at Sacramento to make connection with the Stockton train. AUTO FERRY PASSENGERS HAVE BIGGEST APPETITES San Francisco Bay breezes seem to develop hearty appetites among all classes of travelers, judging from the patronage of the Company's ferryboat restaurants from year to year. During the past twelve months ferry patrons consumed 235,500 snails, 312,000 coffee cakes, 1,460,000 cups of coffee, 40,000 dishes of oatmeal, 115,000 platters of ham and eggs, 3,600,000 doughnuts and 40,000 loaves of raisin bread, in addition to tens of thousands of other portions served from the lunch and dinner menus. Motorists appear to be heavier eaters than foot passengers, more than one in ten dining as the company's auto ferries carry them to and fro between San Francisco, Richmond, Oakland and Alameda. SUSANVILLE AGENT DIES AT GENERAL HOSPITAL Charles B. Morton, formerly agent and operator at Susanville, died at the General Hospital in San Francisco November 4. He was 45 years old and had been employed on the Salt Lake Division for more than twenty years. The funeral services were held at Susanville, where he is survived by his widow and five children. His brother, W. 0. Morton, general foreman of the Locomotive Department, at West Oakland, wishes to express, through the Bulletin, the appreciation of the family for the excellent treatment received from the doctors and nurs6s, both at the General Hospital and on the division, and for the kind services extended by friends. Decembe, ro27-SOUTHFP-N PACIFIC BULLETIN - sr pt w te aj e~ dz re Ot ON sh Pe fa er th fri th, .ft De6 (Continued frons last ntonth) I SEVERAL factors may have influenced Latham and his California Pacific associates in retiring from their railroad venture and cutting short their plans to compete with the Central Pacific. The company was evidently doing but a short-haul local business, the main stem of the system being but 60 miles in length. It is doubtful if the fixed charges were being earned at the time. Increasing the mileage of the system by such a: scheme as was proposed by the Eastern Extension Company and the building of feeders might have solved the difficulty, but the Central Pacific was already north of Chico in the Sacramento Valley and well on the way toward Oregon. A line between Sacramento and Benicia was being considered by the Central Pacific and it was announced during the latter part of 1870 that surveyors had made test borings through the ooze of tule lands and had found that it would be possible to construct a railroad over this section. A line was also proposed from Goat Island in San Francisco Bay to a point opposite Vallejo in Contra Costa County, thence across the straits to the Solatio County shore, but nothing came of it. There was the fact also that the roadbed of the California Pacific was far from being in first-class condition and funds were badly needed to carry on this work, especially across the Yolo and Sutter basins, where the tracks were laid on a very light fill, which was in danger of being damaged by flood waters. Floods Damage Line Just such a thing happened that very winter, when, in December, 1871, twenty-five miles of the line between Marysville and Knights Landing was so badly damaged by flood waters that it had to be abandoned. The main line between Davis and Sacramento was badly washed out and remained out of service until repairs were completed about September, 1872. In taking over control of the California Pacific, the Central Pacific JANUARY, 1928 agreed to undertake the rehabilitation of the property, for which purpose $1,600,000 six per cent second mortgage bonds, guaranteed by the Central Pacific, were issued on August 9, 1871. Six days later Stanford was elected president to succeed Jackson, and Hopkins became treasurer in place of Latham. During the following year, R. P. Hammond became president. The railroad continued to be operated as an independent line until July 1, 1876, when it was ]eased to the Central Pacific Railroad Company for 29 years. The lease was assigned to the outhern Pacific in 1886, and in April, 1898, the existence of the California Pacific was terminated in the general consolidation of companies to form the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. Cloverdale Reached In the meantime the San Francisco and North Pacific Rail Road had been extended from Santa Rosa to Cloverdale during 1871-72 and the following year was sold back to Peter Donohue. About December 26, 1872 , the river steamers and barges were sold to the Central Pacific. During 1878 the Northern Railway was opened by the Central Pacific between Oakland and Port Costa, and the following year from Benicia to Suisun, where connection was made with the main line of the California Pacific. On December 28, 1879, the car transfer steamer Solano commenced transferring trains across Carouinez Straits and, on the same day, the steamer line of the California Pacific between South Vallejo and San Francisco was discontinued and the Amelia established the ferry service between Vallejo Junction and South Vallejo. The only other railroad in active operation in May, 1869, aside from the short railroads in Oakland, Alameda, and San Francisco, was the California Northern Rail Road Company, incorporated June 28, 1860 which placed in operation 26 mile ' between Marysville and Oroville on February 15, 1864. The road later came under control of the Central Pacific interests, and, under the name ULLETIN-,E3:, of the Northern California Railway Company, incorporated September 3, 1888, built 27 miles of line between Marysville and Knights Landing, replacing the old line that had been abandoned following damage by floods in 1871. CHAPTER XXVII Early San Francisco Bay Ferry Boats and Sacramento River Steamers CROSSING the Bay of San Fran cisco from the budding metrop olis on the peninsula to the few house settlements that marked the fu ture sites of Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda, was an arduous and often a dangerous undertaking before 1850. Even for some time after that date trips were made by the first small steamers only when tide and weather permitted. Before the coming of the white man, Indians paddled their roughlyconstructed tule rafts across the bay. During the Mexican and early American periods row-boats, whale boats and small sailing vessels were hired out to those who cared to cross to the beautiful, wooded shores of the Contra Costa. Many new-comers to San Francisco, full of the spirit of adventure and love of exploration, as well as a desire to earn some money, would journey over to the Contra Costa shore in row-boats and sailboats to bunt for game on the hills and marshes of the old San Antonio Rancho. These trips were always profitable, and the hunters had a ready market in San Francisco for all they could capture or kill. As the population grew on both sides of the bay in the decade following 1850, rapid strides were made in ferry communication. By the time the first Oakland railroad was placed in __K oTE 45-Halley's Centennial Book of Alameda County, page 37-103-442. San Antonio Rancho was granted in 1920 by the Mexican Government to Don Luis Peralta, a Spanish soldier. About twenty years later he divided the rancho, on which Oakland, Berkeley, Ala. meda and neighboring towns now stand, among his four sons. There were two encinals, or oak-grove peninsulas, on this vast estate; that forming the original site of Oakland which was known as the Encinal de Taies ~al ; and that of Alameda, which was called the Encinal d,e San Antonio. PAGE SEVENTEEN operation during 1863, two companies, the Minturn Line and the Larue Line, each had two boats making five daily trips over what has since become familiarly known as the Creek Route. First Ferry Boat The first regular steam ferry service between San Francisco and San Antonio (Oakland) was established in 1850, when the Kangaroo was put on the run to make semi-weekly trips. Captain Thomas Gray, of San Francisco, who owned the stern-wheel steamer General Sutter, was urged early during that year to put his boat in Sunday excursion service to Contra Costa. This he did after making a trial trip in a small iron propeller ship. This little boat, which evidently had no name, is claimed to have been the first steamer to enter San Antonio Creek. It stopped at the Moon and Adams landing, where was later located Broadway Wharf, The success of the General Sutter as a Sunday boat, prompted Captain Gray to put the propeller Kangaroo on as a regular boat. The Jenny Lind, commanded by Captain Hunt_ ington, followed the Sutter as a Sunday boat, and, in 1852, the Hector succeeded the Kangaroo as the regular boat. The Hector was a small sidewheel steamer, not much larger than a ship's yawl. The power was communicated from the engine to the shaft by means of cog wheels. Later the machinery was removed from the boat and taken to the redwoods back of :an Antonio, where it was used in operating a saw mill, for which NOTE 46-San Antonio was started by Jas. B. Larue in 1851. Clinton had been established the year before. The town of Oakland was founded in 1851. There was also the township of Contra Costa which was divided be. tween Oakland and Clinton in 1853. In Janu. ary, 1856, Clinton and San Antonio were united to form Brooklyn (known now as East Oakland). Brooklyn became a part of the City of Oakland in 1872. Alameda was founded in 18S4 and was incorporated as a town in 1872. Berkeley was incorporated as a town in 1874, having for some time been a flourishin~ community where was located the College o? California. Halley's Centennial History. NOTE 47-Oakland Transcript Nov. 8, 1969. purpose it was originally designed. During 1851 a small steamer, brought around the Horn from New York, and owned by Captain Rhodes, made regular trips to one of the landings at Oakland. The Erastus Corning, a steamer formerly plying on the Sacramento River to Stockton, was also put on the Creek Route run during this year under the management of Charles Minturn, and commanded by Louis McLane, later president of the Nevada Bank. Fare One Dollar The Court of Sessions for Contra Costa County granted authority in August, 1851, to H. W. Carpentier and Andrew Moon for the operation of ferry boats between Contra Costa (now Oakland) in the Township of San Antonio, and the City of San Francisco, for a period of twelve months. The license fee was $10, and the schedule of fares was as follows: for one person, $1; one horse, $3; one-horse wagon, $3; two-horse wagon, $5; cattle, $3 per head; sheep and hogs, $1 each; and 50 cents for each hundred weight. Records do not show that Carpentier and Moon operated a ferry in their own names under this license, but it is probable that Charles Minturn made use of it under some working agreement in operating his boat, the Erastus Corning. There were a number of boats engaged in ferry service during 1852, some operating on regular daily schedule and others hiring out for special trips. The steamer Boston made a few trips during that year until it was destroyed by fire. Then --R-oTE 48-Oakland Transcript Nov. 8, 1869. NOTE 49 -Statement of Captain John R. Fouratt, pioneer ferry boat captain, who was the first of a family of ferry boat captains, two of whom are now (1928) in Southern Pacific service. NOTE 50-The territory now embraced by Alameda County, excepting the southern portion, was, until March, 1853, a part of Contra Costa County. The Court of Sessions, one of the earliest tribunals, exercised the two-fold function of a court and county board of supervisors. In November, 1869, the California Pacific completed its line from Vallejo to Washington (across the river from Sacramento). This picture was taken during that month at Davisville (now Davis), which was the junction with the Cal-P's branch line from Marysville. This road became a part of the Central Pacific in August, i87x. Cal-P was the common name for the railroad and even to this day many trainmen speak of the line from Sacrame to to Suisun as the Cal-P, and, in making up freight tra ps that symbol is chalked on the cars to be routed over in this line. The locomotive in the picture is a Mason, and, according to D. L. Joslyn of Sacramento shops, locomotive historian, the California Pacific had fourteen Mason engines when taken over by the Central Pacific. PAGE EIGHTEEN came the Red Jacket commanded by Captain John R. Fouratt. This boat had previously been known as the Empire and later as the Kate Hayes. The marine notices in the San Francisco Herald of that year advertised the Caleb Cope as running on the Contra Costa Ferry Route, as well as the Corning and Kate Hayes. But, even with these steamers making daily trips, there were occasions when row-boats, whateboats and small craft from ocean-going vessels were pressed into service for emergency trips across the bay. Harry N. Morse, one of the earlyday sheriffs of Alameda County, was engaged in the boating business during the '50's and, in an interview appearing in the San Francisco Call of February 26, 1888, declared he rowed one of Oakland's prominent citizens across the bay and back in the winter of 1852, for which he was paid $50. Practically all the traffic was up San Antonia Creek to the landings at Alameda, San Antonio, or the foot of Broadway. There was a bad sand bar at the mouth of the creek and Morse said many times he was forced to get out of a small whitehall boat and push it across the bar. Considerable dredging was done during 1859 and a deep channel cleared. Minturn Line During 1852 or '53 the Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company was organized by Carpentier, Minturn and others, the services rendered by the earlier boats having been found inadequate. An ordinance passed by the Oakland trustees in January, 1853, granting to the new company the privilege of operating a ferry across the bay, was rescinded, and during the following March the trustees passed another ordinance to create a public ferry between Oakland and San Francisco, and to provide for the keeping up and running of the same. To carry out the provisions of the ordinance the trustees entered into a I -V 7- -~ M -W:-u W~FV-WNWWAW&A -:D- SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN -4~~ JANUARY, 028 T k contract with E. R. Carpentier under which he was given the exclusive privilege of operating the ferry service for a period of twenty years, the town reserving to itself a certain percentage of the net profits. Carpentier contracted with Charles Minturn and the Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company to operate the service. The original contract was later assigned to Minturn, who, in turn, passed it on to Edward Minturn. Under the privilege of this supposed monopoly, Minturn enjoyed the uninterrupted ferry business until 1858. This company operated the Minturn boats, Erastus Corning and Kate Hayes until about December 26, 1853, when its new boat, the steamer Clinton, was placed in service. The event was announced in the San Francisco Herald of December 22, 1853, as follows: The new and splendid steamer 'Clinton,' Captain L. B. Edwards, will make three trips daily. On January 1, 1854, the monthly commutation tickets will be reduced to $20. On the first of March, 1854, the fare will be reduced to fifty cents. The convenient and satisfactory handling of horses and wagons, cattle, sheep, and bogs, on the ferry boats, was a mucb- discussed point of service in the early days. When the Contra __RoTE 51 -Bancroft's Chronicles of the Builders ; S. F. Herald 6-22-1858; Oakland Transcript 11-8-1869. JANUARY, 1928 Costa made its maiden trip on September 15, 1857, it was announced that this new and splendid steamer was built expressly for the route and so arranged that horses and carriages can be driven on and off. A few years later, when the Oakland Railroad started its combined ferry and railroad service, it was announced that capacious cattle pens were provided both at the Broadway Wharf in San Francisco and at the Oakland Point Wharf. Three Boats Daily When the Contra Costa went in service, boats left three times daily from San Francisco, Oakland and San Antonio. Also in January, 1857 ' the steamer Peralta started making three trips daily from San Francisco to the Peralta Landing, near Alameda. The boilers on the Contra Costa blew out on one of the trips from San Francisco on April 3, 1859. Six persons were killed and many injured, and there was also considerable loss of borses and other property. The steamer did not sink. George A. Clinton, an early Oaklander, in his reminiscences published in the San Francisco Call of February 26, 1888, said that one of those killed in the explosion on the Contra Costa was the bar-keeper aboard the steamer. Talking about bar-keepers, he related, it was a jolly crowd we used to have on those trips. Everyone ,D,-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-45~: Above-Central Pacific's terminal at Oakland Long Wharf as it looked in x873 when the wharf was com pleted to its full length. There were five docks on the old w harf with space for 22 vessels. From this wharf all freight and passenger traffic was handled across the bay to San Francisco. In January, 1882, the present Mole was completed, but Long Wharf continued to handle freight until it was abandoned in :g18 and igig for the present freight wharfs at Oakland Pier. Picture at the left gives an idea of the interior ap pointments on the early day ferry boats. The Julia (lef t)was reconstructed from a Sacramento River Boat during 1832 and placed in the ferry ser vice between Oakland and San Francisco. The orig inal picture was borrowed from the collection of Captain John Leale, retired veteran ferry boat skipper. knew everyone. There was no sitting down in those days to read the newspaper. All the boys used to get together and it was usually somewhere near the bar. I often recall the freeheartedness and geniality of those days. Sometimes we would get stuck on the bar of silted sand, but there was always the bar on the boat with its knot of pleasant gossipers to while away the time when we were delayed. There was no ticket office then, or men in uniform to punch the slips of cardboard. A collector used to come around and get our two-bit pieces, taking a deck-hand with him to make sure he missed no one. It was not all clear sailing for the Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company. Towards the end of 1857 an opposition line, The Oakland and San Antonio Steam Navigation Company, came into being. James B. Larue was the president of the company, which placed the San Antonio, rebuilt from the Confidence, in service April 8, 1858, on the Creek Route from Larue's Wharf, San Antonio, with Captain John Fouratt, formerly of the Minturn line, commanding.'2 In the same year the Larue line started building the new boat, the Oakland, at Steamboat Point during August. It was to augment the service of the San Antonio. At N - OTE 52-S. F. Bulletin 4-12-1858; S. F. Rerald 4-8-1858; Wood's Alameda County istory. PAGE NINETEEN the same time Minturn was having repairs made to the Contra Costa, which gave the boat a fine cabin aft and provided other improvements for passengers. Together with the Clinton, the two companies each were to have two boats in regular service.5' For several months there was bitter competition between the two rival ferry companies and passenger fares were sharply reduced. In June, 1858, Minturn attempted to get an injunction against Larue because of operating boats in violation of his exclusive rights granted under the twenty-year contractbythe Oakland towntrustees. The injunction was denied in the Circuit Court. In the meantime the Larue Company had launched the Oakland during January, 1859, and soon placed her in service with the San Antonio. This gave Larue the better boats, and Minturn, probably seeing little prospect of a favorable decision in his suit then pending in the United States Supreme Court, entered into an agreement with Larue about August 2, 1859, under which the boats of the two lines were thereafter operated under joint management. First Oakland Railroad From fhat date until September 2, 1863, the history of the Oakland ferries seems to have been a period free from important events. The San Francisco and Oakland Rail Road Company then placed in operation the first section of its newly-constructed line in Oakland, on Seventh Street between Broadway and its ferry slip at Oakland Point. The Contra Costa was placed on the Rail and Ferry Line, running in connection with the trains, landing the passengers in San Francisco at Broadway Wharf, between Broadway and Pacific, on Davis Street. The Louise was placed in service by the Oakland railroad company on September 24, 1864, and the Contra Costa transferred to the ferry line of the San Francisco and Alameda Rail Road Company, succeeding the Sophie McLane which had been operated by the Alameda railroad company between San Francisco and Alameda Point, in connection with the trains of that company, since August 25, 1864, when the Alameda rail-andferry line was first opened for traffic. During February, 1866, *the Alameda railroad company placed the Alameda in service, and the arrangement with the Minturn line was concluded. Subsequently the Minturn boats were placed on runs between San Francisco and points in Marin County, and, according to the U. S. register of vessels, were in service about the waters of San Francisco Bay as late as 1873. (To be continued) NOTE 53-Halley's Centennial History. NOTE 54-S. F, Herald, 8-2-1859; Oakland Transcript 11-8-1869, et sell. PAGE TWENTY Your Doctor E MPLOYES are invited to write the General Hospital Department at San Francisco for medical advice. The cluestl . ons will be answered impersonally in this column each month, or letters will be written personally to the employe. Q Ilestion: MY wife is suffering from tuber culosis and has to take sun baths every day. We live in a com pany house with other houses on both sides and railroad tracks within fif teen feet of the yard. I made a solarium for my wife, but, in order to get any privacy, I had to make the walls too high-therefore we had to abandon that. I have been taking her out on the desert for an hour every day. We find that very inconvenient and want a solarium in the yard, where she can go without too much fuss and bother. I noticed an advertisement in the Country Gentleman by Turner Bros. of Bladen, Nebraska, for a substitute for glass that would admit the ultra-violet rays, etc. I would like you to inform me if a solarium covered with this material would do the work satisfactorily. You will note that it is of sufficient density to insure privacy while taking the sun bath, but, whether it is what I want for the other, I do not know. Won't you please let me have your opinion? Answer: You state that your wife is suffering from tuberculosis, but do not say where it has affected her, and you report that she has to take sun baths Santa Claus arrived at Sacramento November 26 - Mayor Goddard is shown extending the city's greet ings to the old boy as he stepped from the observa tion car of the Sierra, the popular train between San Francisco and the capital city. Assistant Station Master J. R. Williams is the official representative of the Southern Pacific. Several hundred children and townspeople waiting outside the station gave Santa a rousing welcome when he put in an appearance. This affair is handled annually by the Retail Mer chants Association of Sacramento. c~ -SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-,-, every day. Sun baths are exceedingly valuable in the treatment of surgical tuberculosis, particularly tuberculosis of the bone, but the use in pulmonary cases is still in an experimental stage and can easily do harm unless given under a physician's direction, both as to the amount of the body exposed and the length of treatment. She should be under constant observation in order that baths could be stopped if she should get any bad reaction. We have no scientific apparatus for the testing of the claim made by the company furnishing what they call Glass cloth. Possibly, if you write them, they will send you a copy of the test which proves their statement, and a statement of authority making the test. Have you one window in your house that could be protected from the view of the window of your neighbor's house? If you have, I would lower it enough to permit of the sun coming in so that your wife could lie on the floor on a blanket in the sun and take her baths. Do you keep a temperature record so that you may know how the baths influence the temperature? The sun is a very powerful remedy and must be used in any case with great care. Question: HAVE a boy nine years of age who has been troubled with dry eczema since aboutthreeyears of age. Have tried several remedies without success. The disease seems to be confined to the joints of his feet and, even with the remedies we apply, the itching is intense and his scratching seems to make the condition worse. Is eczema curable? It is my impression that eczema is a blood disease and that ointments are mere reliefs. We cannot figure that it is hereditary, as none of our families have ever been afflicted with blood diseases of any nature. Would indeed appreciate what advice you can give in this regard and kindly say if the climatic condition has any effect on this disease. Answer: Eczema is curable and your impression that it is due to conditions inside the body is well founded. In some families there is a tendency of the skin to be very sensitive and the susceptibility to certain poisons is hereditary and such manifestations as eczema and asthma are consequences. The climate does not affect the disease. We believe you will be very much interested in an article on Diet and Eczema written by an able specialist of Los Angeles published in the December number, 1925, of Better Health. You can purchase this for 25 cents through your newsdealer or send direct to the head,~ 6ffice, 490 Post Street, San Francisco. JANUARY, 1928 an as tw be th( Di. Vis da: by thi fro haj Ne the Kil rer nai car I for ear I fro sell B a] bef t he 4hma hel, I the I ger Cor tati cerr I vac the I of Mai cerr. ant, F and bas disi 0 ff tha derr -B is a the MiL hol( JAN a (Continued from last month) LARUE continued to operate his boats, the Oakland and San An tonio, but, after the railroad line was extended to San Antonio, he could not meet the competition for traffic, and sold the two boats to the railroad company on March 18, 1865. They were continued on the run from Larue's Wharf at San Antonio to the railroad company's wbarf in San Francisco at Broadway on Davis Street. With the sale of the Larue boats and the transfer of Minturn's boats to temporary service with the railroad company, the first epoch in the history of the Oakland and Alameda ferries was brought to a close in 1865. After that date the important ferry lines were operated in connection with railroad service. If other lines of communication existed during the period just considered, they were not of enough importance to receive mention among the news items of the day. During this period a ferry service was being conducted across Carquinez Straits between Martinez and Benicia. This boat was succeeded in 1851 by the Ione, which Captain Oliver C. Coffin put in service. It had been carrying passengers across the San Joaquin River between Antioch and Collinsville, being propelled by horsepower, but Coffin fitted it up with a steam engine. The Carquinez took this run in July, 1854, but was declared unsafe and her engine was transferred to a new boat, the Benicia, which continued running between Martinez and Benicia until 1879, when the service was discontinued. Sacramento River Boats A cranky little side-wheel craft, known as the Sitka, was the first steamboat on San Francisco Bay and the first to navigate the Sacramento River. It was purchased from a Russian company of Sitka, Alaska, by Captain William A. Leidesdorff and was __ROTE 55-S. F. Bulletin 9-1-1863 ;; Daily Alta California 3-19-1865; Oakland Transcript 11-81869. NOTE 56 - Hulanski's, His. Contra Costa Co.,, PrBRUARY,1928 brought to San Francisco in October, 1847, on the bark Naslednik. Under the direction of a Russian engineer, the boat, which was only 37 feet long, with a 9-foot beam and a 3%-foot hold, was put together on Yerba Buena Island and, on November 15, 1847, steamed away on its trial trip. Captain Leidesdorff did not overlook the importance of the maiden trip of his little steamboat, heralding as it did the coming of an era of world shipping and inland commerce which was to develop prosperity in the San Francisco Bay district. On the bow of the boat he mounted a gun, from which was fired an occasional salute as the steamer plowed its way around Goat Island. The first trip was a complete success and a few days later a business trip was inade to Alviso, where at that time connection was made by stage with Santa Clara. A trip was also made to Sonoma. Epoebal Voya.ge Then came the one great voyage of the Sitka's short career-the longanticipated trip to Sacramento. This trip took six days and seven hours. One of the passengers saved the odd hours by leaving the boat at one of its stops along the river and walking into Sacramento. No better time was made on the return trip. It is related that a freight team of oxen which left Sacramento at the same time as the little steamer reached Benicia four days ahead of the river voyagers. Even that seemingly slow time was not so bad for the early days. A round trip by schooner or other small sailing craft from San Francisco to New Helvetia, or Sutter's Fort, as Sacramento was then called, took from two to six weeks, depending on the kindness of the winds and tide. Not long after her return to San Francisco, the Sitka was swamped during a gale February 12, 1848, while lying at anchor, and was sunk about where Battery Street is now. It was raised and hauled ashore by oxen to Montgomery Street. There it was overhauled and the hull converted into -~ SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN- ~:, a a small schooner, which was named the Rainbow, and later saw considerable service on the river. Probably the first vessel of any size to navigate the Sacramento River was the schooner Ijabella of the Hudson Bay Company, which spent eight days on the river in 1839, affording the inhabitants of Sutter's Fort a thrill and causing considerable wonderment as to the reason for the visit. Later Captain Sutter kept a schooner of 17 tons which he used for trading and to bring letters and news from Yerba Buena, as San Francisco was at one time known. He also had an open-yacht-boat, the While Pinnace, used in trading on the upper part of the river. When the wind was not right this boat was rowed by eight Indians. The first steam -propelled vessel to enter San Francisco Bay was the California on February 28, 1849. The excursion of the Oregon from San Francisco to Benicia and back on April 12 of the same year was the first trip 'i~y a steam vessel of any size into the interior waters of the bay. Rush to Diggings With the discovery of gold and the rush from all corners of the globe to the promised land of California, there was a clamor for any kind of transportation to the diggings. Men paid liberally for the privilege of working their way up to Sacramento on the river boats. Naturally, the passenger fares were high and ranged from $25 up, mostly up. During the summer of 1849 a number of steamboat enterprises were on foot. In the rush to get the faster crafts into service, the chroniclers of early-day events became confused as to just which steamboat was second in service to the Sitka. The Sacramento seems to have been the first boat advertised for regular service. It was launched at Sacramento in September, 1849, but was too weak to withstand the winds and NOTE 57-Bancroft's Chronicles of the B u ilders of the Commonwealth; Davis' His. tory of Sacramento County. PAGE NINE River landing of the old California Steam Navigation Company at Sacramento as it looked in 1868. On the right is the depot of the Central Pacific now Southern Pacific, at the foot of K street. The Chrysopol!.~ was the fastest of all of the early day Sacramento river steamers and is credited with waves of the bay. It ran between that city and New York-of-the-Pacific, a town located near the mouth of the San Joaquin River. There connection was made with the schooner James L. Day, and others, for San Francisco. Captain John Van Pelt of the Sacramento is credited with being the first steamboat captain on the river. Second Steamboat Bancroft, in his history, is of the opinion that the Washington, launched at Benicia in August, 1849, was the second river steamer. It made only a few trips below and above Sacramento before it was sunk. It is also claimed that the Edward Everett, Jr., a wheeled, flat-bottomed boat, deserves the distinction of being the second steamboat. The latter boat was the property of the Boston and California Mining and Trading Joint Stock Company, an expedition of New Englanders who sailed from Boston January 11, 1849, and arrived at San Francisco July 6, on the Edward Everett, a fullrigged ship of about 800 tons burden. The company selected Benicia for its headquarters and, on July 10, the Edward Everett moored alongside the marsh opposite the point at which the city of Benicia at that time was expected to rise and rival San Francisco in wealth and importance. During the long trip around the Horn, the framework of the little steamboat, Edward Everett, Jr., was fitted together and the engine and boiler put in working order. Several barges were built and other preparations made so there would be no delay in making a dash for the gold fields. The day after arriving at Benicia the expedition started up the river. PAGE TEN 906_,.~ a run of five hours and, nineteen minutes from San Francisco to Sacramento a few months after it went in service during ig6r. Tom May's truck is in the fore.-round - May was widely known in those days and his truck met all boats and trains handling passengers' baggage to hotels. It consisted of four barges and two surf boats heavily laden with stores and men. Writing in the Century Magazine of 1892, Willard B. Farwell, secretary of the company and a passenger on one of the barges, related: There was no sign of human habitation until, as we rounded a bend in the river, the tents and shanties of Sacramento came into view. The city of Sacramento was at that time but little more than a busy, thriving camp, along the river and on the line of what is now Front Street. Heaps of merchandise were scattered along the river bank. Teams of every description and pack trains were constantly loading and departing for the mines. Excitement prevailed everywhere and was written in the expression of every face. Food was scarce. A wagon load of potatoes and onions arriving from the Mission of San Jose was speedily disposed of at a dollar a pound. Many months elapsed before we again indulged in these luxuries. In the meantime work on the Edward Everett, Jr., was progressing at Benicia. The keel had been laid on July 13 and she was launched on August 12. Three days later a trial trip was made and, on August 17, she started on her first voyage up the river. We reached Sacramento on the early morning of the 19th, wrote Farwell. The steam whistle was sounded on approaching, and the whole camp was soon assembled upon the river bank to receive us and witness the unique sight of a steamboat on the Sacramento. The blasts of the whistle and the yelling of the multitude ushered in a day of jollification, in which whisky was the fuel that kept up steam on shore long after the *';NSOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-4~ fires had gone out under the boilers of the little Pioneer. The Y.b,, a scow intended for dredging, was pressed into service about that time on the upper river between Ma7rysville and Yuba City. During October and November of 1849 three of the most notable early river boats came on the scene. October 9 the Mint, a small, careening, yet fast craft, made her first trip from San Francisco to Sacramento. Then followed the propeller McKim of 326 tons burden, the first large steam vessel on the river, which had come around the Horn from N ' ew Orleans. It drew eight feet of water and doubt was expressed if it could ascend the river as far as Sacramento, which point it did reach October 27. Senator Fine Boat The Senator, a fine steamer of 755 tons burden, reached Sacramento November 8. Because of the sluggishness of the McKim, the Senator soon took its place as the most popular boat on the river. During the first year the net profits of this boat exceeded $60,000 a month, with a fare of $30 to Sacramento, $10 extra for stateroom, $40 to $50 a ton for freight, and $2 for a meal. Prices were lowered a year or two later to $10 for passengers and $8 a ton for freight. With a monopoly of routes, for a time some of the boats made fortunes, but by September, 1850, competition threatened to reduce the fare to even $1. During that year there were 16 steamers in river service, and, by 1853, there were 25 steamboats on the Sacramento and Feather rivers. There were too many boats for the business. NOTE 58-Alameda Gazette, March 8, 1873. NOTE 59-Bancroft. 0, b P, C p; ai Cl p: S U G G th lo h( in si N hi w: fu W4 sb pa hi w] se sh by W po W th, 11 Gc ha W Mi ha MIA- FEB FEBRUARY,1924 . I This situation brought the largest of the independent owners into a combination which resulted in the incorporation, February 22, 1854, of the California Steam Navigation Company. The company was capitalized at $2,500,000 and R. P. Cheney was chosen president. The first steamers pooled by the several owners included: Senator, New World, Antelope, Cornelia, Wilson G. Hunt, Confidence, Thomas Hill, Helen Hensley, Kate Kearney, Hartford, American Eagle, Sophia, J. Bragdon, Urilda, Comanche, H. T. Clay, Pike, Gazelle, Plumas, Belle, Cleopatra and Gem. Famous Old Boat Of these boats the New World was the most famous. She was 215 feet long, with a 27-foot beam and 9-foot hold and was built at New York early in 1850. Before going into commission she was seized by the sheriff of New York for debt. Captain Edgar Wakeman, however, was. determined his boat should proceed to California without delay. One day he ordered a full head of steam, cut the lines, and went flying down the bay with the sheriff and his deputy as unwilling passengers. The captain, backed by his crew, asserted the authority to which he was entitled on the high seas and there was nothing the sheriff could do. He was put ashore by one of the mates and the New World went merrily on. At several ports on the way around the Horn Wakeman outwitted attempts of authorities to detain him and, on July 11, 1850, he steamed through the Golden Gate and landed at Cunningham's Wharf. The next day the New World was pulled up on the beach at Mission and First streets for overhauling and repairs. During Septem ber she took heir place on the Sacramento run in connection with the Senator. Her career was p robably the most colorful of any of the pioneer river boats. She immediately stepped into the front rank of her competitors and continually carried off the palm in matches f or speed and other prowesses. For more than ten years she carried the broom at the head of her jack-staff, the coveted badge of honor signifying her superior speed. She took on all comers ana bowed to none until the coming of the Chryjopolis, when, on December 31, 1861, she forced that steamer to make the record run from Sacramento to San Francisco in 5 hours and 19 minutes. In April, 1853, the New World had made the run in 5 hours and 35 minutes, and, on July 4, 1854, went from San Francisco to Sacramento in 7 hours and 5 minutes, breaking the Antelope's time 30 minutes. The Nevada was credited with a downriver trip of 5 hours and 40 minutes. In 1865 the New World was sold by the California Steam Navigation Company to Captain Thomas Lyle, he backing his word with a heavy bond that the famous old boat would not ply on California waters for ten years. She. then saw service on the Columbia River and Puget Sound. A few years later she found her way back to San Francisco Bay and was sold to the California Pacific Railroad Company. Suit was brought against her for breach of contract. The case dragged along in the court until after the Cal-P became a part of the Central Pacific, when she was again allowed to go back into service. She NOTE 60-B. P. Brady, former purser on the New World. I wound up her career on the San Francisco-South Vallejo run, and, when this service was abandoned in December, 1879, she was scrapped. The Chrysopolis was built in 1860 by John G. North at Steamboat Point, ,foot of Fourth Street, San Francisco. Her engine was sent from New York. Aside from being the fastest boat on the river, she was a marvel of beauty. Her gross tonnage was 1625 tons. In 1875 she was remodeled by the Central I Pacific and placed in the ferry boat service. Central Pacific on River For several years the California Steam Navigation Company flourished and its boats did the bulk of the passenger and freight business on the Sacramento River. Then, with the completion of the railroad to San Francisco Bay, the passenger business of the river boats fell off. Before long they were virtually reduced to mere freight carriers, with diminisbed profits and importance. In April, 1871, the boats were purchased by the California Pacific Railroad Company and the original company went out of existence. In July, 1873, the Central Pacific was operating 29 of the former California Steam Navigation Company steamers on the river and 20 barges. These boats had been purchased in December, 1872, from the leased lines of the California Pacific. One of the barges was the San Antonio, which fifteen years before made its maiden trip on the San Francisco-San Antonio (Oakland) ferry run for the Larue Line. During the succeeding years this NOTE 61-Captain John Leale, former river and ferry boat captain. Broadway Wharf was San Francico's Ferry Building back in j865 when this picture was taken. On the left side of the dock the Yosemite is taking on passengers for the trip up Sacramento River. This was before the railroad reached San Francisco Bay from Sacramento. River steamers also landed on the other side of the whan Considerable of the old waterfront has been filled in since that day. As the San Francisco Piers are now laid out, old Broadway Wharf would be between Piers 7 and 9. just south of Broadway Wharf was Pacific Wharf. Between these two wharfs slips were built opening onto Davis Street for use of the Oakland and Alameda ferry boats. VaUejo, Green and Union were other important wharfs in the early day3, according to Luke Fay, pioneer San Franciscan. FrBRUARY,1928 D,-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-e3 PAGE ELEVEN original fleet of river boats acquired by the Central Pacific was diminished. Some were sold, others dismantled, and a few were refitted for ferry service. In more recent years Southern Pacific operated only four steamers on the river and at the present time, there are just ;wo boats on the run, the Navajo, a combination freight and passenger vessel,and the Cherokee, a freighter. (To be continued) Keen Interest Is Shown By Employes In Safetv Work DURING 1927 employes in all branches of the service continued to take keen interest in accident prevention. A total of 4482 suggestions were made by employes in promoting safety work, of which 3352, or 75 per cent, were approved by the Safety Committees, 700 did not meet with approval and 430 were still pending at the end of the year. The El Paso General Shops and Stores led in the number of suggestions offered, 742 suggestions being presented to this committee. The Portland Division led the Operating Divisions with 453 suggestions. Safety committees are composed of division and general shops and stores officers and employes from each banch of the7t&ervice. There is a committee on each division and in each general shop, and meetings are held monthly and bi- monthly to receive suggestions and devise ways and means of maintaining the highest degree of safety in the operation of trains and steamers to safeguard employes and the public. Meetings are of the utmost importance, bringing together officers and employes, whose ideas are exchanged, discussed and formulated into such shape as to minimize the hazard of accident. During the year 166 safety committee meetings were held, attended by 6361- committeemen and visitors, 177 papers on accident prevention Were read by safety committeemen, and, reports received to the effect that 53,143 employes were talked to individualIy by safety committeemen on safety matters. Full details are shown in the foll'owing statement: Committee El Paso, Gen. Shops and Stores .... Sacramento Gen~ Shops and Stores., Portland Division .............. Shasta Division .. ................. Coast Division ................ Sacramento Division s Western Division ~p Salt Lake Division ................. Rio Grande Division ............... Los Angeles Gen. Shops and Stores...~. Stockton Division ................. East Bay Electric Division .......... New Mexico Division .............. San Joaquin Division ........... Steamer Division ............. Tucson Division ....... Los Angeles Division .... Total ....................... PAGE TWELVE New gasoline motor-driven self-Fropelling electric crane which is being used by the Stores Department in I suppiy train service, greatly acilitating and speeding up the handling of heavy materials and scrap Electric Crane With Supply Train T WHAT is considered the first at 12-foot radius; the 30-foot boom gasoline motor-driven self- has capacity of 3400 and 13,000 propelling electric crane to pounds respectively at 30 and 12-foot be placed in service by a railroad radius. The tail swing is seven feet Stores Department is being operated four inches and will permit crane to on the Pacific Lines. The crane has swing 90 degrees to clear cars on been used in the supply train service adjacent track when spaced 13 feet over various divisions and has proven center to center. its efficiency, according to A. S. The gasol ine- driven, four-cylinder McKelligon, general storekeeper. It motor has 1000 RPM capacity and is is mounted on four 110-pound rails coupled direct to a compound-wound laid on a flat car and is used to load generator which has 51/z kilowatts, scrap and unload new material at 22 amperes, 250 volts capacity. The local terminals or stores. motor has a self-starter and the gen The boom has a radius of 30 feet erated power is operated through a t with an adjustable ten-foot section to 250-volt control. Gas is supplied the E give 40-foot radius when desired. It motor from a 100-gallon tank made of I is raised and lowered by cable from 16-pound galvanized iron. It is t boom drum. The 40-foot boom has a riveted and soldered and has a sight t capacity of 1600 pounds at 40-foot gauge. The magnet is 36-inch di- a radius and -maximum 12,700 pounds ameter and 250 volts capacity. z Lucky,.Bilt Wins Sedan Albert Dubbers, Civil Engineer t Dies at Boulder Creek The personnel of the Treasury De partment at the General Offices are calling W. F. Bender, their co-worker, Lucky Bill, by virtue of his having won a Chrysler sedan in a contest held recently by a San Francisco busi -ness establishment. Approved 643 388 229 244 216 223 149 175 4162 36 33 124 30 41 44 5, 7' ~22 3352 700 ~w 0 of Suggestions Made Disapproved Pending a4 3.3 28 19 26 8 2,0 19 16 13 15 29 13 14 430 96 40 75 ,33 63 44 37 12 Albert Dubbers, well-known rail road construction engineer and for the last:21 years an assistant engi neer with Southern Pacific, died sud denly at Boulder Creek, January 8. The funeral was held at Santa Cruz, with his former associates inAhe En Tots, . I gineering Department as pallbearers. 742 Dubbers took a prominent part in 453 the construction of the Bay Shore 376 322 cutoff, the Natron cutoff, the San 310 Diego &.Arizona railway, and other 292 239 difficult railroad engineering feats of 227 the past two decades. For two years 219 210 he was city engineer at Ventura. He 203 Was formerly with the U. S. Geologi 183 cal Survey and was instructor in 167 166 mathematics of Selborne School, San 165 Rafael. 113 106 He was 68 years old and is sur 4482 vived by his widow. S-0 U T 4 E i IN P A R CIFIC BULLETIN-,3, FFBRUARY.1928 .L CHAPTER XXIX Central Pacific Reaches SanFrancisco Bay: Later Developments at Oakland and Alameda WHILE the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 authorized con struction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean, or to navigable waters of the Sacramento River, and made provision for a railroad to San Francisco Bay, the builders of the Central Pacific at first confined their activities only to the road east from Sacramento. Any original plans they had for building an extension of their line to San Francisco or the Bay dis trict were changed by an agreement made on October 31, 1864, conveying to the Western Pacific Railroad Com pany all rights for constructing the railroad and telegraph lines between Sacramento and San Jose. This railroad (no connection with the present Western Pacific) was organized by Timothy Dame, Charles McLaughlin and other men interested in the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad Company who proposed to bring the first transcontinental railroad direct into San Francisco by way of San Jose. The company was incorporated December 13, 1862, with Dame as president and W. J. Lewis, chief engineer. Capital stock was $5,400,000. It was proposed by the company to build a railroad from San Jose to a connection with the Central Pacific near Sacramento. The route was, as it is at present, through Niles Canyon and Stockton. Financial aid was in part given by San Francisco, Santa Clara and San Joaquin counties by purchase of stock in the company or donation of bonds. The assignment made to the company by the Central Pacific was ratified by an act of Congress; on March 3, 1865, which recognized the Western Pacific as a part of the national Pacific Railr6ad, and when completedin 20 mile sections was to receive a loan of construction bonds from the government at the rate of $16,000 a mile, NOTE 76-Sacramento Union 1-1-66; Bancroft, Vol. V11, Chapter 20; p. 557. APRI- 1928 -:0 which bonds became a lien on the railroad and the amount was ultimately paid back to the government. The first 20, miles were to be constructed in one year from July 1, 1865, and the whole road within four years. Contract for constructing and equipping the entire road was let to Charles McLaughlin, who was also the contractor with A. H. Houston in building the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad which had been opened for traffic in January, 1864. Thework was sub-let by McLaughlin to various contractors, one of whom was C. D. Bates. In January, 1865, Bates put the first force of 500 men, mostly Chinese, to work grading the line. At the annual meeting of the company at San Jose, January 6, 1866, Charles H. Fox was elected president; S. 0. Houghton, vice president; Charles Sanger, secretary; andB.F.Mann, treasurer. Other directors were John Center, E. F. Pease and M. J. Dooly. At that time 20 miles of grading was completed and rolling stock and track material had been received. It was expected the first section would be completed in about four months and that the line would be in operation to Stockton by the end of that year. These plans did not materialize. The first 20 miles, to a point near Vallejo's Mill (now Niles) was not completed until October. A resolution in Congress had extended the time allowed for construction of that section. Work was then discontinued. During 1867 McLaughlin experienced some difficulties with his contracts and asked that all arrangements between himself and the Western Pacific be cancelled. Under an agreement made with the Western Pacific about June 8, 1867, he retained the land grants. Soon afterwards the Western Pacific entered into a contract with the Contract and Finance Company to build the remainder of the road. Construction work started in April, 1868, on the eastern end of the line at Brighton where junction was made with the NOTE 77-Halley, p. 197. NOTE 78-Halley, p. 207. NOTE 79-U. S. Pacific Ry. Com. Testimony, p. 2785. SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN- 3: Sacramento Valley Railroad which had become part of the Central Pacific. The road was opened for traffic to Stockton on August 14, 1869, and construction continued toward Livermore Pass and Niles Canyon. The line was opened through from Sacramento to San Jose on September 6, 1869. Prospects of a railroad had attracted settlers to the country along the line of the proposed Western Pacific. M. W. Mendelhall donated ten acres of land in 1867 for a depot near Laddsville, and laid out a town which he named Livermore, after the first settler in the valley. Name of the place called Alasal was changed to Pleasanton, and a town site plotted. Governor Stanford and his associates in the Central Pacific having acquired in 1867 an interest in the Western Pacific through the Contract and Finance Company and by stock purchase, turned their attention to obtaining terminals on San Francisco Bay. The original route which the Western Pacific was to take from San Jose to San Francisco had by this time come under the ownership of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company' which proposed building south and east to a connection with another proposed transcontinental railroad at the California state line. A shorter route for Central Pacifie's entrance to the Bay, however, was available in building a connection between the Western Pacific's main line at Niles and the existing Oakland and Alameda railroads, the latter of which was then operating to Hayward. e NOTE 80-Sacramento Union 4.2-68; 9-6-69, San Jose Mercury, 9-8-69. NOTE 81-Halley, P. 253. NOTE 82-Southern Pacific Railroad Company was incorporated December 2. 1865. Congress authorized this company in 1866 to build to a connection on the Colorado River with the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. During the summer of 1868 the S-anford-Hunting on inlerests purchased controlling stock of thet FyouthCqt Pacific Railroad Company. PAGE FIFTEEN the main line of the W . estern Pacific, also to 'spend not less than $500,000 in improvements on the property within three years. An act of the legislature on March 30, 1868, granted to the Western Pacific and Southern Pacific companies each a terminus of thirty acres on the San Francisco side of the Bay, the grant lying on the water front of Mission Bay, together with right-ofways for approaches to the terminals. The conditions were that the governor should issue patents to the property when $100,000 had been expended on improvements, any time within thirty months. With the terminal sites obtained there was now left to Stanford and NOTE 83-The Oakland Water Front Company was organized in 1868 to manage the submerged and overflowed lands in the front of.Oakland between high tide and ship chan. nel which had been conveyed to H. W. Carpentier by the City of Oakland in 1852. NOTE 84-Bancroft, Vol. VII, Chapter XX, p- 580. The possible use of G~at Island as a railroad terminus was a much discussed subject until during 1873 when the government ruled against use of the Island for commercial purposes. (Halley, p. 348). The Cali. fornia legislature in March, 1868, granted 150 acres of tide lands just northwest of Goat Island to the Terminal Central Pacific Railway Company, with certain requirements concerning terminals, bridges to the Contra Costa shore, and railroad connections. This comgany was not formed, or at any time owned y associateS in the Central Pacific Railroad, but was formed by other interests with a view of selling their rights and franchises to th~ railroad company. Looking up Broadway, Oakland, from the Central Pacific's railroad station at 7th Street in 1869 when that city became the terminus of the transcontinental railroad. The horse cars of the Oakland Railway Company operated on the tracks shown in the picture. This line extended from 7th Street along Broadway and Telegraph Avenue to the University grounds. Later a stearn dummy operated from the end of the horse car tracks at 38th Street to the University Campus. his associates the building of the railroad connection. The first step wap m e. n August, 1868, by purchase _44 J from. A .-A. ..Cohen of his controlling inipi4 III e 'San Francisco and p *' th ailro4,d, operating abAt five miles to East Oakland, together with its ferry service to San Francisco. Also a company was organized to build the connecting road from Niles to East Oakland. This was the San Francisco Bay Railroad Company, incorporated September 25, 1868. Surveyors were placed in the field early in 1869 to determine the best route for the connecting railroad. A trial line was run over the hill from Dublin to Hayward, but a few days surveying showed there was no advantage in such a cut-off in preference to the Niles Canyon route. Construction was started near Niles during June, 1869, and by August a temporary connection had been made at San Leandro with the San Franci.sco and Alameda Railroad, controlling interest in which had also been purchased from Mr. Cohen. It was over this connection, via Melrose, that the first Central Pacific train reached San Francisco Bay on September 6, 1869. During the early afternoon of that NOTE 85-Iiiiii, p~. 579. This time was later extended two years. NOTE 86-Memoirs of Henry Root. day two trains pulled out of Sacra- P. mento on this memorable journey. It A] was an occasion for considerable cele- B, brating and demonstrations wereheld W, in the towns along the route. At Val- ul lejo's Mill (Niles) one of the trains ne switched off for San Jose, and the ea other train of twelve coaches ' pulled wl by three locomotives, proceeded on over the newly constructed line to- tic ward the Bay. wl Alameda was just a little town then, tic but its citizens were fully awake to ne the importance of its being the ter- fri minus of the transcontinental railroad, B -, and were hopeful it would be more an than a temporary arrangement. Peo- wl ple from all over the countryside were an there to witness the passing of the re, first train. Here is how the Alta in( California reported the celebration in 06 the paper the following day: fe As the train neared the Alameda lo station an immense crowd of ladies wc and gentlemen, and all the youngsters Fr they owned, awaited the auspicious lai moment of its stoppage. At the sta- br. tion a quadrangular superstructure sa was built over the track, having upon each side an arch of evergreens, beau tifully adorned with a vast profusion re: of roses and other flowers, for which 18 Alameda county is so justly renowned. ha Over and above these were a multi- st( tude of flags, which seemed to bear at in their folds an unusual amount of th( pride, grace and beauty. tri Everybody Celebrated Wi And now the hoarse whistle of the ca locomotive is heard. Cannons boomed, cei and the loud huzzas, and the noise Ca of bells, and boys, and men all made Ro a conglomerate language which would be~ set at bay the untiring genius of mod- set ern philology. And so passed the first tui train to its western terminus. Every I house that had a flag displayed it; ah every head that had a tongue joined Al; the chorus; every heart that could lar scan the past and survey the future Th filled with emotion as the spectre of. - fire and life came and went. 7, There were eleven ovel-land pas- 2 3, k sengers on the train, who, together. trai with the local passengers, were taken cifi, to San Francisco on the stea ExI rilp, r Sil to name) from the wharf at the foot of ser rot A total Of 12s delegates-from ten Western railroads attended the Second Annual Conference of Younqer Men from the transportation companies of the Pacific Region held at Portland January 27-28-29. The conferences are sponsored by the Y. M. C. A. in cooperation with railroad officials and a committee of the young men employes. Last year the conference was held at Sacramento. No place has yet been selected for the meeting place next PAGESIXTEEN . 2~o-SCIUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-,3 yea, dre, i rot APRIL, 1928 Pacific street (now Lincoln Ave.), in Alameda, to the ferry slip across the Bay on Davis Street between Broadway and Pacific Street wharves. Regular train service was started the next day with two trains scheduled each way daily between Alameda wharf and Sacramento.' Prior to this time extensive additions had been made to Alameda wharf for the temporary accommodation of freight and passenger business. Freight was at first unloaded from the cars and ferried across the Bay on- lighters to a wharf at Second ing Streets, San Francisco, where delivery was made to consignees and at which point freight was also received. Soon there was need for increased facilities and the ferry boat Oakland was fitted up as a car transfer ferry, being able to carry five loaded freight cars. Suitable slips were built at the Alameda and San Francisco landings. Freight was thus landed in San Francisco without breaking bulk and at considerable saving of time. First De Luxe Train The first solid Pullman car train reached Alameda wharf October 22, 1869, after a run of about six and a half days from New York, making stops only for fuel and water except at the large cities. Three days later the same train started on the return trip east, running through to Omaha without passengers having to change cars. The train consisted of the Reception Car 'San Francisco, Hotel Cat Elkhorn Club, and Drawing Room Cars Orleans and Auburn besides the baggage cars. Meals wem served on the train, which was a featurp strongly advertised. Construction work had been going ahead on the connection between the Alameda line at Melrose and the Oakland local line at East Oakland The last rail was laid on this section NOTE, 87-San Francisco Bulletin September 7, 1969. NOTE 88-San Francisco Bulletin October 23, 1869. The fastest and best passenrr train operating then on the newly opened acific Railroad was the Atlantic and Pacific Express. The Central Pacific had its own Silver Palace sleeping cars. Passengers had to change ca~s at Promontory. Meals were served at station eating houses along the route. Freight cars being unloaded from the car transfer ferryboat Thorough fare at Oakland Long Wharf shortly after the ferry boat was placed in service in January 1871. This boat was cut in half in igog and used to float the span of Dumbarton bridge to placement. October 28, 1869, and that morning the locomotive Reindeer took a construction train through Oakland along Seventh Street to the wharf at Oakland Point. There was great rejoidIng in Oakland November 8. On that day the first through overland passenger trains started running and Oakland became the terminus of the transcon~inental railroad. Plans for celebrating the event had been under ' way for several days but due to uncertainty when the road would be in shape to handle the first trains, no formal program was arranged. Enthusiasm of the residents was left to express itself in spontaneous and informal demonstrations. Crowds were at the Seventh and Broadway station all day, and the arrival or departure of trains was the signal for much cheering. Many residences and down-town buildings were draped with flags; streamers were stretched across Broadway and an arch built over the tracks at the station was decorated with evergreens and banners. The main part of the celebration was during the evening. Bonfires lined the tracks along Seventh Street between Oak and Market Streets. Six o'clock NOTE 89-Oakland Point which had earli been known as Gibbon's Nint, was a litteler village apart from the City of Oakland, and was located in the district now known as West Oakland. was the time set for the train's arrival in Oakland, and at that hour a cannon which had been moved to a spot near the station was to boom the first shot of a 100-gun salute. There was a misunderstanding and the train pulled into Oakland a little after 5 o'clock. This detracted somewhat from the glamor of events to follow, but even at that early hour hundreds of people were at the station to give rousing cheers. After a very short stop the train proceeded along to the Point with the locomotive whistle shrieking. Oakland had not yet installed her gas lighting system and the speakers' stand erected at the station was shrouded In darkness until some enterprising person obtained several candles, which, when placed in halved potatoes for holders, cast gleams of light over the large audience. Col. John Scott was marshall of the day and introduced Mayor John B. Felton as the first speaker. The Mayor re~ ferred to the day as the birthday of Oakland as a great commercial city,'i and when he paid tribute to the builders of the Central Pacific, his remarks were greeted by much cheering. Ex-Mayor Samuel Merritt and Hon. A. C. Henry were also speakers. Poems and prophesies were read by other citizens and music was furn NOTE 90-Halley, p. 280, year. Chas. E. Hardy, of Sacramento Shops, was the retiring president this year, being succeeded by William Turner from the Western Pacific at Oroville. Principal addresses at Portland were given by A. A. Murphy, assistant to president, Union Pacific; and by A. E. Roberts, ( f the Y. M. C. A. The Pacific Railway_Club offered a trophy to the best basketball team which was won by the fast team from Sacramento General Shops. APRIL, 1928 .:D.SOVTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN -Eg: PAGE SEVENTEEK ished by the Oakland Brass Band. A special dispatch to the San Francisco Bulletin at 10 o'clock that night reported that great quantities of skyrockets and Roman candles were then being fired and that the celebration was still in full force. NOTE 90-San Francisco Bulletin, November 9, 1869; Oakland Transcript, November 9. 1869. (To be continued) PACIFIC FRUIT EXPRESS TEAM IS CHAMP OF S. F. BASKETBALL Traffic Matters Discussed at Monrovia Meeting Plans for the handling of freight and passenger traffic during the coming spring and summer months were discussed by agents, operating officials and traffic officials at a joint conference held at Monrovia February 21. The meeting was presided over by R. S. Fisher, district freight agent, and George W. Wetherby, district passenger agent. Talks were made by F. E. Watson, general passenger agent; George J. Blech, general freight agent; H. A. Culp, assistant superintendent, Los Angeles Division; T. F. Fitzgerald, general traffic representative; Heber Smith, assistant freight claim agent, and V. F. Frizzell, district freight agent. t S F t 0 S f t ~__l (Continued from last month) THE Oakland Transcript of that day (November 8, 1869) noted the progress being made in transportation methods with the following editorial comment: There are many of us who remember when the morning trip of the Contra Costa from the foot of Broadway was delayed (April 14, 1860) for arrival of the first 'Pony Express', and who took part in the enthusiastic cheering which greeted the first Pony and his boy rider, as he galloped wearily down Broadway and was hurried on the boat with his precious, small bag of letters. Today comes thundering into Oakland the great 'Iron Horse' with tireless lungs, speeding along with a hundred tons of steel and living freight, seven days from New York. Wonderful contrast! The comparison between that little mustang and the great 'Iron Horse'; between that small bag of letters and the train of heavy cars laden with passengers and freight; between the weary galloping of horse flesh and the never tiring force of steam; illustrates the progress of California and crowds the mind with reflections beyond expression. Arrival of the railroad immediately began to show its effect on Oakland's business and industries. Broadway suddenly became a busy thoroughfare with the teams of hackmen and draymen scurrying about carrying passengers, luggage and freight to or from the station. The building of a new hotel to take care of the visitors coming into the city was urged. Prior to the eDtrance of the Central Pacific into Oakland, the wharf at the Point had been extended from a half mile to 1.3 miles long. Two boats were added to the ferry fleet. The jF,4sj*e, a reconstructed river boat , 'went into service during February, 1865, and during July, 1868, an elegant new steamer, the El Cafii;gn, was placed on the run to San ranCisco. - On May 15, 1870, the section of the road between San Leandro and Melrose was opened for traffic. This completed the main line into Oakland. MAY, 1928 f -, .4T~s Cl' ro 1-0 pl' p yboats. After that date the original line of the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad, which had been in temporary use by the Central Pacific was turned over to the Alameda local trains. Properties of the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad and the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad had been operated under management of the Central Pacific since the latter part of 1869, and on August 22, 1870, these companies, together with the Western Pacific, San Joaquin Valley and California and Oregon companies, consolidated to form a new Central Pacific Railroad Company. It was under the name of this company that the Big Four later built the San Joaquin Valley line south from Lathrop to Goshen, and extended the Oregon line north from Chico into Oregon. The last section of the transcontinental railroad in Oakland was completed during the latter part of 1870 when the line between East Oakland and the wharf at West Oakland via First street, was opened for traffic. Long Wharf Operted Work was in progress extending the wharf to ship's channel and providing slips for the largest sea-going vessels as well as the regular passenger and freight ferries. When the WhArf came,in possession of the Central Pacific it was about 6900 feet lo,n with ,width sufficient for 0' e track and a roadway for teams. Tlre a, -, ~~ ~~ ~., I , a single slip for the 'ferry ~l Catilan. Plans for the enlarged terminal consisted of a new track for the main overland line, connecting with the old wharf about 4000 feet from the Oakland shore. The wharf itself was to be extended 4200 feet with three tracks and a team roadway. Three e. construlcte , one qT ferry, on for a new 5lip€ were.. to,-,b th ; ', 'p a's s e lig e r tI-61jht-'Car ferry, and one of suffici~lnt to berth four large vess s w4rehous il ~~w es a] , ongside for t~6 ,pq 9 .in ,,y,Ary storage.of rain or other cp - moditijes, awaiting shipment. A frontage of more than 4000 feet was available for other ships outside the three sli s c:~)- SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN -,E37 The new two-mile wharf, which became known as Oakland Long Wharf, was opened for traffic January 16, 1871. In manner of construction and excellence of materials it was considered the best of any similar structure in the world. With the opening of Long Wharf and abandoning of the old San Francisco and Alameda Railroads short pier, the freight- car transfer boat Thoroughfare 12 was placed in operation to' Second street wharf in San Francisco. This arrangement solved the problem of freight service across the Bay. Hourly trips were then being made to San Francisco by the passenger ferry boats. The El Capilan ran from Oakla nd Whar~ and- the Alame'da fr - om Alameda Wharf. Duiing,071'a total of 1,867,423 passengers were ca ' rried on the Central Pacific's boats. There was a rapidly growing need for additional service and this was accomplished during 1873 by building a line from Mastick Station on Railroad Avenue (Lincoln) Alameda to Seventh a n d Harrison streets, Oakland, via Alice street, connecting the Alameda local with the Oakland local. San Antonio Creek was crossed by the first railroad bridge built between Oakland and Alameda. T h i s connection was opened for traffic September 29, 1873, on which date Alameda Wharf was abandoned and the Alameda trains were operated to Long Wharf, where the Alameda alternated with the El Capilan in making trips every half- hour to'San Francisco At the same time train service NOTE 91-Additions were later made to the wharf until there were five docks providing berths for 22 vessels. Dock E was used for handling and storage of trans-Pacific freight. It had a warehouse with 50.000 square feet floor space. Dock A was the coal bunker dock, Long Wharf remained the passenger terminus until Oakland Mole was opened janiiiiry 22, 1882. It was the freight terminus until abandoned during 1918-19. NOTE 92-This boat was for exclzisive use in tran~ferring freight cars and replaced the improvised Oakland. It had track capacity for .18 cars, besides pens for 16 carloads of stock. The boat was huilt at San Francisco during 1870, the engines being construc:ed at the railroad shops in Sacramento: During 1909 it was divided in balf.and-used to-float spans for the Dumbarton bridge. NOTE 93-Fifty-six years later S o u t h e r- n Pacific, successor of the Central' Pacific, transported 29,500 000 passerkgers!~, oil ; its fleet 6f PACE: THIRTECN This was San Francisco's first ferry building. It was located on East Street (Embarcadero) between Market and Clay streets and was built by the Central Pacific Railroad Company in connection with slips built by the California State Harbor Commissioners. Ferry boats from Oakland Long Wharf made first use of this commodious and convenient passenger station on September 4, was abandoned over the former San Francisco and Alameda Railroad between Melrose and Hayward, the tr2ffie having been absorbed by the mainline trains. During the succeeding few y e a r s numerous additions and changes were made by Central Pacific to its ferry boat service and heavy expenditures were made in providing convenient accommodations for passengers at the Oakland and San Francisco terminals, and for expediting t h e handling of freight. The Oakland was broken up in 1874 and its name passed on to the famous Chrysotolis of the Sacramento river steamers. The completely remodeled boat went into service on the San Francisco-Long W h a r f run in September, 1875. A second freightcar transfer ferry, the Transit was commissioned March 6, 1876. First Ferry Building The Oakland ferry boats started landing September 4, 1875, at Central Pacific's new passenger station in San Francisco near the foot of Market street and the slip on Davis street between P a c i f i c and Broadway wharves, which had been in use since ferry service was established in 1862, was abandoned. The new slips on East street (Embareadero) between Market and Clay, were constructed by the S t a t e Harbor Commission. Market street wharf, adjoining the new slips on the south, was used for the Sacramento River steamers and for the -NOTE 94-The tracks between Melrose and San Leandro were taken up in 1873 and those from San Leandro to Hayward in 1874. NOTE 95-This boat was built at Oakland Point (West Oakland) and had a capacity for 20 freight cars of the size in those days, and corral room for 20 carloads of stock. PAGE FOURTEEN T87.5, and at the same time the landing on Davis Street. between Broadway and Pacific street wharves, was abandoned by the ferry boats. During 1877 this buildin, was moved and rearranged to conform to three new slips built by the HarbWCommi5sioners, which station continued as San Francisco's terminal until the present Ferry Building was erected in 1896. steamers running to South Vallejo in connection with the California Pacific, then a part of the Central Pacific system. The passenger station, predecessor of the present Ferry building built in 1896, was moved and rearranged during 1877, to conform to three new slips built by the Harbor Commissioners. An improved Creek Route ferry service was inaugurated July 1, 1876. Dredging of the Estuary of San Antonio had been carried on by the government for some time, making it possible for larger boats to pass up the channel to Oakland's waterfront on -the Creek. A new slip was built at the foot of Broadway, Oakland, and the Capitol, largest of the Sacramento river steamers, was completely remodeled for the new Creek Route service. With the establishing of this service the handling of team traffic was discontinued at Long Wharf. The Central Pacific builders now turned their attention to obtaining a shorter main line between San Francisco Bay and Sacramento, and one that would eliminate the heavy grades of the route over Livermore Pass and through Niles Canyon. It was proposed to extend a road from junction with the main line at what is now West Oakland along the shore of the Bay to Port Costa where a ferry would transfer trains across Carquinez Straits to Benicia. From Benicia a line would be built to a connection with the California Pacific-'at Suisun. From Port Costa connection NOTE , 96 -For some years the steamer Louise had been on the Creek Route. It was now taken out of regular service and was ordered broken up November 6, 1878, along with the Washoe. c:~~-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-,* would be made with the Company's line in San Joaquin Valley. This project was carried through under the name of two companies. The Northern Railway Company built from Oakland to Suisun and the San Pablo & Tulare Railroad Company from a point near Martinez to Tracy. First section of the road was opened August 16, 1876, between West Oakland and Shellmound. At the same time Berkeley was given its first steam train service connecting with the ferry to San Francisco. Under the name of the Berkeley Branch Railroad Company, a line had been built from Shellmound via Stanford Avenue, Adeline street and Shattuck avenue to University avenue. An extension to Berryman's station (now Vine street) Berkeley, was opened July 1, 1878. The line was opened from Shellmound to Delaware street (West Berkeley), January 15, 1877, and on January 9, 1878, connection was made near Martinez with the San Pablo & Tulare Railroad. The completed line was opened for traffic to Tracy on the following September 8. Port Costa Ferry The new main line through to Sacramento was opened for traffic on December 28, 1879, when the extension from the California Pacific at Suisun to Benicia was first operated in connection with the train-ferry Solano across Carquinez Straits between Benicia and Port NOTE 97-Tn his Centennial History, Halley wrote as follows: Progress going on about this time (Fall of 1875) at Berkeley, warranted the expectation that the beautiful suburb would, ere long, swell into a town of considerable di. mensions. Page 410. Berkeley was incorpor. ated April 1, 1878, having at that time about 2000 population in the incorporated limits of the city. MAY, 1928 tit f`4 Costa. At the same time the ferry service between San Francisco and South Vallejo in connection with trains of the California Pacific was discontinued and the Yosemite was taken out of service. The .4melia began service between Vallejo Junction on the new main line and South Vallejo. It was a gala day on April 16, 1879, when the citizens of Benicia and Suisun celebrated the completion of the railroad between their towns. An excursion train was run from Benicia in the morning carrying about 200 people, including the Martinez brass band and a brass cannon. The train of three coaches and a flat car left for, Suisun with booming salutes and stirring music. The visitors were greeted by Suisun's own brass band and the entire populace. Before through train service was started, a local ran from Sacramento. Passengers detrained at Benicia, also at Port Costa, and crossed the straits on the Solano. This continued for several months before passenger trains were run onto the big boat. Building of the present Oakland Mole was the next most important. work done by Central Pacific at its Oakland terminus. Construction work was commenced during June, 1879. Rock for the fill was hauled from Niles Canyon, a distance of more than 26 miles. The fill, or Mole was constructed to a point 1.26 miles westerly from Oakland shore four tracks and a carriage way being pro NOTE 98-The Yosemite was dismantled and the hull was sold in 1883. Central Pacific reported 29 steamers in its Sacramento river fleet at the beginning of 1873. Gradually the rail lines absorbed the bulk of the traffic and the boats were either sold, broken ~, ii, were remodeled for ferry boat service. w sternwheel steamers, the Modoc and Apache, were put in service on the river during July and August, 1380. vided for over the first 4800 feet. Beyond this point the Mole widened out to 280 feet, accommodating 12 tracks, 10 of which were within the large train shed at the end. The greater portion of the embankment and rock protection wall was completed in time to allow construction work to start on the new passenger station and train shed early in 1881. The building was designed by Arthur Brown, . superintendent of bridges and buildings for the company. Both the wharf and station building were erected under his supervision. On January 22, 1882, the Mole was first opened for traffic. Long Wharf was then devoted exclusively to freight traffic. South Pacific Coast During this time the South Pacific Coast Railroad Company was building a narrow gauge road from a pier on San Antonio Creek to Santa Cruz, via Newark and San Jose. This road was financed and built by James G. Fair and his associates. It was their intention to continue the line down Salinas Valley, across the Coast Range through Pacheco Pass, and ultimately meet the Denver & Rio Grande, which at that time was a narrow gauge railroad building west. The road was built under the name of several different companies, including the Santa Cruz and Felton Bay and Coast, Oakland Township: San Francisco and Colorado River, Felton and Peseadero, and the Almaden Branch Railroad. First section was opened from Santa Cruz to Old Felton on October 13, 1875. This line was joined near Big Trees on May 15, NOTE 99-WM. H. Norton, retired, was the dispatcher who handled the first trains into the new terminal. 1880, by a line from the north extending from Dumbarton Point near Newark through San Jose and Los Gatos. A street car line between Newark and Centerville was placed in operation in February, 1892. During 1878 the wharf had been~ constructed at Ala~ meda Point and a line built to~ New~'_ ark, which was first operated With the ferry service on June, 1, 1878. The company'had three ferry boats the Newark, Bay City and Garden City: which landed in' San Francisco at -a slip at the foot of Market Street. A bridge was built across San Antonio Creek to Webster Street, Oaklandi and was opened for traffic May 30, 1881. Later the line was extended to 14th and Franklin streets and opened for traffic October 1, 1886. Before this time a pile trestle with double track plank roadway for carriages had been built on the south bank of San Antonio Creek and was placed in operation March 14, 1884. This trestle-pier was later filled in and became the present Alameda Mole. On May 23, 1887, these properties were*all consolidated under the South Pacific Coast Railway Company and on July 1 following this company ]eased its narrow gauge railroad and ferry boats to the Southern Pacific Company,la which company had also on April 1, 1885, taken over operation of all Central Pacific and associated lines. (To be continued next month) NOTE la-Early in 1906 the South Pacific Coast tracks north of Wfight were changed to standard gauge and a connection was made with the Central Pacific from West San Leandro to Elmhurst. After April 28, 1906, the South Pacific Coast trains operated to Oakland Pier. During 1907 remaining portions of the narrow gauge line were changed to standard gauge. ILIMAY, 1920 W-a This sketch of Oakland was made in x89,3. The long trestle of the South Pacific Coast narrow gauge, now Oakland Mole, shown at the left, was placed in service during March, 1884. Long Wharf and Oakland Mole are shown extending into the Bay, also the wharf of a proposed ferry line. Webster Street bridge (longest one) across the Estuary was replaced by Harrison Street bridge in September, Igo. The Alice Street bridge had been built in 1873. It has been during recent years that the open channel to Lake Merritt was filled. The 12th Street dam was built in 1912 and the 7th Street trestle was filled in with dirt and rock duriag][917andigill. -:* . SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN - t., PAGE FIFTEEN 4~1 [~go. F,CHAPTER XXVIII First Railroads in the San Francisco Bay District THE San Francisco and San Jose Railroad, as mentioned in a previous chapter, was the first railroad projected in California, but lost to the Sacramento Valley railroad the distinction of being the first road placed in operation. While the gold rush was in full swing during 1849, a group of San Franciscans launched the scheme of building a railroad from San Francisco to San Jose, with the hopes of extending it later to the Mississippi River. During the succeeding two years subscriptions were solicited and, with about $100,000 raised a company was organized September 6, 1851, called the Pacific and Atlantic Railroad. Surveyors were placed in the field and before the end of the year an engineering report on the proposed route was ready. Efforts were then made to sell the company's stock but without success. The gold fields offered greater attractions. Foreign capital could not be interested because no part of the road had been constructed. Congress was asked to aid with land and bonds, but the bill only passed one house. Affairs of the company remained dormant until October 29, 1853, when it was reorganized with capital stock of $2,000,000. Again no headway was made due to the financial reverses over the country in 1854-55. It was not until 1859 that the enterprise was again taken up, this time under the name of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. The state legislature was urged to enact a bill permitting Santa Clara, San Mateo and San Francisco counties to vote on a proposition of subscribing $900,000 to the capital stock of the company. The San Francisco newspapers opposed this proposition and the company was again dissolved. A fourth organization was quickly formed and incorporated August 18, 1860. In the following October a construction contract had been let to Charles McLaughlin and Alexander NOTE 62-Bancroft, History of California, Vol. VIII, pp. 536, 537. PAGE TWELVE ~ - sH. Houston. Of the $2,000,000 capital, individual subscriptions of $258,300 had been obtained, of which $100,000 was paid in. By vote in April, 1861, the people of the three counties subscribed a total of $600,000 to the stock of the company.' Ground was broken late in May, 1861, at San Francisquito Creek on the road south. During the summer work was started in San Francisco county and on October 18, 1863, the first train passed over the portion of the road completed from tne Pioneer Race Course (about 18th and Valencia) to Mayfield. One train was scheduled to make a round trip daily. It was hoped that in a few days an additional daily train could be placed on a round trip to Menlo Park. San Francisco's First The contractors pushed the work along steadily and on January 16, 1864, completion of the road was celebrated with fitting ceremonies at the new brick station on San Pedro Street in San Jose. A beautiful day favored the directors for the formal opening. Hundreds of people congregated around the terminal at the race track in the hopes of getting on one of the excursion trains bound for San Jose. All classes of equipment were pressed into service and some of the enthusiastic citizens made the journey in stock cars. Practically the entire population of San Jose was on hand to greet the two trains of visitors from San Francisco. Mayor John Qu-Imby of San Jose gave the address of welcome and following his remarks the California Guards, under command of Captain Bluxome, fired a salute of 36 guns. Timothy Dame, president of the railroad company, reviewed the history of his company and told of the difficulties encountered in completing the road, which, he said, was the first link in the grand chain of railroads which is to bind the golden shores of the Pacific with the corn fields of the Mississippi Valley, and that the time was not far distant when the 'iron horse' would be shout NOTE 63-San Francisco Bulletin, Jan. 18, 1864. NOTE 64-San Francisco Bulletin, July 14, 1861; October 19, 1863. OUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-,E3 ing his cry of joy on the hills and through the valleys of the greatplain that separates us from the homes of our childhood. At the conclusion of the speeches a procession was formed and, escorted by the uniformed military and fire companies of San Jose, marched through the streets of the little city, returning to the station where good fellowship was ,'moistened by no end of claret and champagne. Officers of the company in 1864, besides President Dame, were: Henry M. Newhall, vice president; Alexander H. Houston, general superintendent; Chas. H. Sanger, secretary; Peter Donohue, treasurer; and W. J. Lewis, chief engineer. Other directors were: Chas. B. Polhemus, G. H. Bodfish, T. G. Phelps, C. T. Ryland and John Carter. For a short time trains were run from the terminal at the race track until the extension from the main line at about 25th and Valencia was opet,ed February 14, 1864, to the passenger and freight station on the north side of Brannan between 3rd and 4th Streets. About two years later the passenger station was located at Market and Valencia where it remained until the station on Townsend between 3rd and 4th was opened in 1875. At the same time the freight station was located at 5th and Townsend. The company started regular train service with three locomot ' ; ves and about three dozen passenger and freight cars of various descriptions. Most of the cars were built in the shops of the contractors in the Mis sion while others were built in the East and shipped around the Horn. Two locomotives, the A. H. Houston and the Chas. McLaughlin, arrived by sailing vesels during April, 1864. A total of 8384 passengers were han dled by the company into San Fran cisco during April, 1864, and 8541 passengers into San Jose. In the fol lowing June a delegation of city and county officials, including Mayor H. P. Coon of San Francisco, and members of the Board of Supervisors of San NOTE 65-San Francisco Call, Jan. 17, 1864; Bulletin, January 18, 1864. MARCH,1928 t 4 Id =isco, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, made a formal tour of inspection over the line in behalf of the counties which were stock holders in the company. They gave a report of complete satisfaction. Oakland Road Opened While the San Francisco men were having their troubles raising money to build the line to San Jose, George Goss and Charles W. Stevens promoted the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad company and placed a combined rail and ferry line in operation on September 2, 1863, extending from Broadway in Oakland along Seventh street to Oakland wharf where ferry connection was made to Davis Street and Broadway in San Francisco. By an act of the state legislature in May, 1861, certain men associated with Goss and Stevens, including Rodmond Gibbons, Win. Hillegass, R. E. Cole, Samuel Wood and Joseph Black, were authorized to construct a railroad from the western end of the bridge leading from the town of Clinton to the city of Oakland through the streets of Oakland to a point on the Bay of San Francisco, where the shore approaches nearest to Yerba Buena Island. The company was incorporated October 21, 1861. J. B. Felton, one of Oakland's pioneer mayors, was the first president. There was a great burrah in Oakland on Aug. 2, 1862, when it was learned that piles bad arrived for the wharf to be built at Gibbon's Point (about the present location of Oakland Pier) and that work had actually commenced. Real estate in the community immediately advanced fifty per cent.' Six days later con NOTE 66-San Francisco Bulletin, Feb. 13, April 9 and lune 2, 1864. NOTE 67-Halley's Centennial History, P. struction of the railroad started, M. T. Dusenbury, later of the Oakland Savings Bank, turning the first spadeful of earth. Construction work was rushed along rapidly. The wharf was extended about three-quarters of a mile, sufficient to clear the bar. On September 2, 1863, Engineer James Batch~lder took the first train of three cars over the line as far as Broadway, about four miles. Myron T. Dusenbury gained further distinction by being the conductor on this first train. The cars and locomotive Liberty had been built at Oakland Point by a Mr. Young. Completion of the first railroad in the Bay district did not arouse much enthusiasm in San Francisco. Oakland's neighbors across the Bay were looking forward to their city becoming the western terminus of the great transcontinental railroad, and had put their faith in the road then being built to San Jose. They could not get excited over the four-mile road in Oakland that looked to be only a local project at that time. In a five-line news item on September 1, 1863, the San Francisco Bulletin announced the completion of the Oakland railroad and called attention to an advertisement in another column announcing that the ferry boat Contra Costa would start the next day making six trips each way daily, and that capacious cattle pens -ere provided both at Oakland Wharf and at the landing on Davis Street in San Francisco. For almost a year the railroad did not extend beyond Broadway. Stiff competition was being offered by the two ferry boats San Antonio and Oakland of the Larue Line, which oper NOTE 68-Wood History of Alameda County, 681. ated between San Antonio (East Oak land) and San Francisco, on the creek route. To get a share of this traffic, the railroad company built a bridge across the creek and opened it-, line into San Antonio (East Oak land), September 28, 1864. In the following March, Larue sold his two boats to the railroad, which contin ued them in . operation on the creek route. April 1, 1865 1 the railroad was extended to Larue's Wharf at the foot of Commerce Street, San Antonio, which point remained the eastern teripinus of the road until the entrance of the Central Pacific into Oakland in 1869. In September, 1864, the railroad company put the Louise, its first ferry boat, on the run from Oakland Wharf in place of Minturn's boat, the Contra Costa. The Enciftal Railroad The ambitious move of General Superintendent Goss in extending his local line from Broadway into Brooklyn and San Antonio, was effective in checking competition of the creek route ferry boats, but it proved too great a financial undertaking for the treasury of his company. As a result the Oakland company in October, 1865, came under the management of Alfred A. Cohen, principal stockholder and general superintendent of the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad Company, commonly known at that time as the Encinal Road. This company had been incorporated March 25, 1863, with F. D. Atherton, A. A. Cohen, E. B. Mastick, Chas. Minturn, J. D. Farwell, J. G. Kellogg and John W. Dwinelle, as directors. Together with the San Francisco, Alameda and Stockton Railroad Company, controlled by practically the NOTE 69-San Francisco Bulletin, 9-1-63, et seq; ibid 8-24-64; Daily Alta California, 3-19-65. MARCH.1928 Oakland's first railroad station at 7th and Broadway. It was from these platforms that the people of Oakland greeted the first through Overland trains from the East on November 8, 1869, when the Central Pacific extended the first trans. continental railroad to San Francisco Bay. The station is not the only object of distinction in the picture. On the left is the first gas light to be erected in Oakland. It first spread its gleams of light over that corner on December 31, ISM. -V-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-4e PAGE THIRTEEN The Liberty was the first locomotive used on the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad, the first railroad placed in operation in the San Francisco Bay District, September 2, r863. The little locomotive was built at Oakland Point (West Oakland) by a Mr. Young who also built the first three passenger cars Used in Oakland. It is claimed by some that the pioneer locomotive was built by C. W. Stevens, who was one of the contractors who built the railroad to Broadway. James Batchelder was engineer of the Liberty and in the years following was Oakland's most popular railroad engineer. The Liberty had a I 1X25 inch cylinder and was not unlike the famous C. P. Huntington. same interests, the company built a railroad from Alameda Wharf (since abandoned) at the foot of Pacific Street, via what is now Lincoln Avenue to the east boundary of Alameda, then northeast to Melrose, crossing the Central Pacific (located in 1869) near 47th Avenue, then southeast to San Leandro creek, entering San Leandro via Alvarado and Ward streets. From San Leandro the line followed the east side of the county road to San Leandro creek, then through what is now Watkins Street, to the terminus of the line at Deane Street, one block South of the plaza in Hayward. The wharf at the foot of Pacific Street was completed in the spring of 1864 and on June 23 construction work started on the railroad along what was then Railroad Avenue. Enough material had been contracted for to build the line to Hayward,. from which point it was proposed to connect at Vallejo's Mill (Niles) or at Washington Corners, with the' Western Pacific Railroad, then organized to build north from San Jose, via Stockton, to a connection with the Central Pacific near Sacramento. First trial trip was made over the Alameda road on August 13, 1864, with the locomotive E. B. Mastick and two passenger cars. The train started from the wharf and ran into town where a crowd of delighted citizens were taken aboard for a ride to the end of the line. On the 25th of the month regular service was opened as far as High Street. The steamer Sophie McLane, which had been on the run to Alviso where stage connections were made with Santa Clara and San Jose, was engaged by Cohen for temporary ferry service to the landing in San Francisco on Davis NOTE 70--Corporate History, S. P. Co. NOTE 71-Halley, p. 190; San Francisco Bulletin, Apr. 25, 1864. PAGE FOURTEEN Street, between Broadway and Pacific wharfs. Later the Contra Costa was used on this run until February, 1866, when the company's first ferry boat ,41ameda went in service. Work on the railroad went steadily ahead. Grading was completed to San Leandro in January, 1865, and on March 1, the first trip was made by rail and water from San Francisco to San Leandro, then the county seat of Alameda County. Regular service was started the next day. C. D. Bates was given the contract to build the road into Hayward and when that Point was reached a celebration was held August 24, 1865. The first train brought a delegation from San Francisco, Oakland, Alameda and smaller communities. A big dinner was served by the railroad company in Edmond son's brick warehouse. Hayward's as it was first known, gave promise then of becoming the city it is today, but when the first railroad arrived it boasted of only thirty houses. On that date the Alameda company was reported as having two locomotives. The names of these locomotives is in dispute among present ay authorities, it being claimed that the J. G. Kellogg was No. 1. However, early-day historians have recorded that the E. B. Mastick, built at Vulcan Iron Works, San Francisco, took the first train over the line in August, 1864, and that the J. G. Kellogg, built at Alameda Point by A. J. Stevens, afterwards general master mechanic of Central Pacific, was turned out of the railroad's shop January 27, 1866. There was also another locomotive probably the F. D. Atherton placed in service between these two. 4 1h6r6-*a€ - ,railroad connection T d- ',and, Alameda;.~ until rs -19 ,`when t e fi t bridge across the Estuary was built. Anyone wishing to go from Oakland to San Leandro or Hayward could make use of the railroad service by two inconvenient and round-about routes. One could ride on the local line to Brooklyn across San Antonio creek, then walk to Park Street station of the Alameda railroad. Or, if there was no great rush, the rail-ferry line could be taken to San Francisco and then across the Bay again to Alameda wharf for rail connection to Hayward. NOTE 72 - Halley, p. 190; San Francisco Bulletin, Aug. 24, 1864. NOTE 73-Alta California Aug. 25, 1865; Halley, p. 197. The county seat was moved to Oakland in March, 1873. NOTE 74-Alta California, Aug. 25, 1865; Halley, pp. 190, 209. NOTE 75.-Memoires of Henry Root. The first railroad out of San Francisco was the one completed to San Jose in January. r864. Itwasbuiltbytbe San Francisco and San Jose Railroad Company. which line was later extended by the Southern Pacific. The passenger train above was photographed in z866. The locomotive San Mateo was built by Baldwin earlier in that year for the Western Pacific (no connection with present compaq by that name). This company was controlled by the same Interests as the San Francisco company and evidently the locomotive was oined or leased to the other company. When first placed inmrvice it was given a letter E but-was later No. s and was in its declining years used as a yard engine at San Jose. The _picture was given The Bulletin by courtesy of W. S. Keefe, of Oakland. The original was obtained from Gen. B. Purington, of Stockton, who was at one time a fireman on the locomotive, and whose father was its engineer for several years. S--SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN--E~- MARCH, 1928 -r 14 I t 14 A number of railroad projects were confidentially spoken of late in 1860 after Hayward was reached. In addition to connecting the Alameda road with the Oakland local line and the Western Pacific, it was planned to continue the Oakland road to a terminus on Goat Island; to extend the Hayward line into the Amador Valley, and to build a northern road to Placerville, via San Pablo and across the Straits of Carquinez. The Goat Island project was abandoned, and the other proposed lines waited completion, in whole or in part until the builders of the Central Pacific entered the field to establish a terminus on San Francisco Bay for the western link of the first transcontinental railroad * (To be continued) Work Started on New Line in Arizona CONSTRUCTION work was started February 15 on Southern Pacific's new line in Arizona between the Gila Valley and Globe, which will give a new routing to that portion of the Globe Branch. The change of line has been made necessary by construction of the Coolidge Dam in the Gila River which will form the artificial Lake San Carlos over much of the present rail line. Length of the new line will be 18.97 miles and its cost will be about $2,451,000. Maximum height of the line above San Carlos Lake will be 60 feet, or 150 feet above the present line. The re-routing will begin at Calva, twelve miles west of Geronimo, which is sixty-six miles from Bowie. From Calva the line will cross the Gila River and thence westerly along the north boundary of the San Carlos reservation to connect with the present line about five miles south of Rice, which is twenty-two miles from Globe. At the Gila River crossing there will be a bridge consisting of ten 70-foot girders with trestle approaches, 150 feet and 660 feet. There will also be a bridge across the San Carlos River below Rice, with 60-foot girders and two 150-foot trestle approaches. It is expected the work'will be completed in six to eight months. By that time the lake will be forming above Coolidge Dam. The entire project is being carried on under the direct supervision of Chief Engineer Geo. W. Boschke. A. E. McKennett, construction division engineer, is in charge on the ground. Grading contracts have been awarded to the Utah Construction Company. The new line, winding for miles at the edge of the hills skirting the lake, will pass through a picturesque and beautiful region and will be an added attraction to the famous Apache Trail Route. MARCH,1928Something new in the way of conveniences for the motoring public was instituted by Southern Pacific recently. On the main highway from Northern California near Richmond the company constructed a bureau to give out information regarding ferry boat schedules to tourists. Photo shows the new permanent structure beNeved to be the first of its kind in the United States. At the top, City Councilman A. L. Paulson of Richmond is shown congratulating Glenn E. Collins, general agent in charge of auto ferry traffic for Southern Pacific. Gift Given Fred Smith by Radio Message By G. L. SNIVELY Bulletin Correspondent, Ogden A UNIQUE and genuine expression of esteem was extended Fred C. Smith at Ogden January 18, when he was presented with an expensive radio set as a gift from the members of the four railroad brotherhoods in appreciation for the years of association with the former assistant superintendent of Salt Lake Division. The unusual feature was that the presentation speech came over the air from Station KSL, Salt Lake City. Together with several hundred railroad people, My. Smith, recently appointed superintendent of the Ogden Union Depot, was attending the sixth annual ball of the brotherhoods. During one of the dance intermissions it was announced that a new radio was to be tested in another room. Mr. Smith unsuspectingly accompanied other friends into the room and, when the instrument was tuned in, be beard a beautiful tribute paid to his long association with the railroad men. The remarks, in part, were as follows: To be associated for more than forty years, to work together, to know each other most intimately and then to part and still be ardent friends, that is something worthwhile. It is the record in brief of the fellowworkers with Fred C. Smith, who, on this occasion in the name of the four -cV,-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-~~ transportation brotherhoods, are sending a message on the wings of the air proclaiming that life holds nothing sweeter than true friendship. We are calling aloud through the depths of space. Do you hear us, Fred? We want to tell you how much we think of you, how we respect you, and love you. Your fellow-workers regard you with great esteem, and, as a token of their friendship, they are presenting to you this radio. When Mr. Smith heard the concluding words of the radio message he was too overcome to attempt to express his appreciation. After the applause had died down, Mayor Frank Francis, warm personal friend, spoke a few words of acceptance in Mr. Smith's behalf. New Books on Railway Signaling Are Ready For Sale Two more chapters of the contem plated twenty-six dealing with American Signaling Principles and Prac tices are,now offered for sale by the American Railway Association, under whose supervision the chapters are being compiled. Chapter V deals with batteries and Chapter X, alternating current relays. The previous Chapter VI published last May deals with Direct Current Relays. Prices to railroad employes, including postage, are: Chapter V, 20 cents; Chapter VI, 14 cents; Chapter X, 15 cents. Address Signal Section, A.R.A., 30 Vesey Street, New York. PAGE FIFTEEN CHAPTER XXX Birth of Southern Pacific Railroad Company; Building of Line in San Joaquin Valley LONG before the Central Pacific met the Union Pacific at Promontory in May, 1869, other companies had also been organized with intentions of building transcontinental railroads. The Big Four builders of the Central Pacific viewed these rival companies with considerable apprehension. They realized that when their own railroad was completed it would bring settlers and ultimate prosperity to the sparsely populated valleys of California and it was from the eventual passenger and freight traffic that they hoped to realize a return on their huge investments. The Northern Pacific Railroad Company was authorized by Congress in July, 1864, to build from a point on Lake Superior to Puget's Sound, on a line north of the 45th parallel, with an extension to Portland. While this road would not immediately enter the field of the Central Pacific, it was nevertheless threatening. Then on July 27, 1866, an act of Congress approved the plans of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company to build from Springfield, Missouri, via Albuquerque and the 35th parallel, to the Pacific Coast. By the same act the Southern Pacific Railroad Company was authorized to build to a connection with the Atlantic and Pacific at the Colorado River, and to receive the government land grants.a Southern Pacific Organized The Southern Pacific Railroad Company, which was destined in later years to join with the Central Pacific in forming the presentday Southern Pacific Company, was incorporated December 2, 1865, under the laws of NOTE 2a-The act provided for a grant of forty alternate sections in the territories and twenty sections in the states, also a 200-foot right of way. No money was to be paid by the government to aid in construction. Work was to commence within two years; complete not less than fifty miles per year after the second year; and com I t and equip main line of whole road by Y.1,' 41 1878. By Act of July 25, 1868, Congress extended construction time, Jre uiring completion of first thirty u, miles by y 1, 1870, and subsequent construction of twenty miles annually. PAGE TWELVE California, to build from San Francisco Bay south through the counties of Santa Clara, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, Los Angeles to San Diego, and thence cast through San Diego County to a junction at the state line with a contemplated road from the Mississippi River. Capital stock was $30,000,000 and the incorporators were: T. G. Phelps, C. I. Hutchison, J. B. Cox, B. W. Hathaway, Writ. T. Coleman and J. W. Stephenson, all of San Francisco; Benjamin Flint, San Juan; W. S. Rosencranz, Cincinnati, 0.; Chas. N. Fox and B. G. Lathrop of San Mateo. Phelps was president, Fox was secretary, and Win. J. Lewis engineer. Little headway was made in the plans of this company until it was recognized as a part of a. second transcontinental railroad by the act of Congress in July, 1866. Provisions of the act were accepted on November 24, and on January 3 following, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company filed a map designating the general route it proposed to take from San Francisco through San Jose, Gilroy and Tres Pinos in the Santa Clara and San Benito valleys, thence across Pacheco Pass into San Joaquin Valley and south over Tehachapi Pass to Mojave, where the line turned easterly toward the Colorado River. Congress definitely approved this route by a resolution -on June 28, 1870. The originally proposed line down the coast to San Diego was, in part, temporarily abandoned. The first step of the Southern Pacific was to acquire the line already in operation between San Francisco and San Jose, owned by the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad Company. Stock of San Francisco County in this road was purchased following authorization of the state legislature on March 30, 1868. Three weeks later, on April 21, ground was broken at 4th Street in San Jose for extension of the line to Gilroy. This work was carried on by the Santa Clara and Pajaro Valley Railroad and was completed on March 13, 1869. Trains were operated over the branch from Gilroy to Tres Pinos as far as Hollister on July 13, 1871, and on August 12, 1873, the line was completed to Tres Pinos, where the terminus has since remained. From Gilroy the line was built by the Southern Pacific. By this time Governor Stanford and his associates in the Central Pacific had acquired a controlling interest in the budding youn- railroad company and on MiNkiiic. P. J10V~pre%11RMft%T4fft Cen 40 bANINW-4004he Se e I r brt om nship between the two lines. This alliance became a matter of official record on October 12, 1870, when the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad Company, the Santa Clara and Pajaro Valley Railroad Company and the California Southern Railroad Company'a consolidated to form a new Southern Pacific Railroad Company.'a Companies Consolidate From that date ownership and control of the Central Pacific and Southern Pacific properties was in the hands of the same men, Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins and their associates. Although additional explorations and surveys had been made during 1869-70 over the proposed route from Gilroy through Pacheco Pass to the San Joaquin Valley; thence over the Tehachapi Pass to Los Angeles; and southeast through San Gorgonio Pass as far as Phoenix,la Southern Pacific had no definite route into Southern California until Congress on March 3, 1871, chartered the Texas Pacific Railroad Company'a and authorized South NOTE 3a-The Santa Clara and Pajaro valley Railroad Cow?an% was ._incorporated ,e January 2, 1868. T . lifor ia Souther. Railroad Company was incorporated January 22, 1870, to build from Gilroy to Salinas but did not carry out the work in its own name, NOTE 4a-This company had capital stock of $50,000,000. The incorporators were: Lloyd Tevis, Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Charles Mayne and Peter Donahue. Authorized to operate a railroad from San Francisco through the counties of San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Monterey, Fresno, Tulare, Kern, San Bernardino and San Diego to the Colorado River, and such branch line railroads as the directors deemed advantageous. NOTE 5a-Reminiscences of Lott D. Norton, assistant engineer during construction. NOTE 6a-Texas Pacific Railroad Company was authorized to build from Marshall, Texas, via El Paso through New Mexic,), Arizona SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN - ~- juNE, 1928 ~r -.0 11~]r ,wre Pacific 6o buil6l sowhll friom. Mo-, jave, by w&7- of Lw-, AngVes, -to a aonnecihon, wiih the~ former railkoad at the, C 6iorad& 111~,er- on the exti- eme southeastern boundary of California, probably at Fort Yuma. To provide for this additional construction Southern Pacific amended its articles of incorporation and' increased its capitalization.'a During this period in which the -Southern Pacific Railroad Company came into existence and had gained recognition as the western link in two and southerly to San Diego, keeping the route as close as practicable to the 32d parallel The land grant included forty sections per mile in the territories and twenty sections per mile in California, a 400-f3ot right of way and 40 acres for stati on grounds, etc. Construction was to commence simultaneously at both ends of the line. At least 50 consecutive miles were to be in running order within two years and to complete the whole line in ten years. The New Orleans, Baton Rouge and Vicksburg Railroad Company was authorized to connect with the eastern terminus of the Texas Pacific, and to have same rights as the latter company in its construction to New Orleans. An act on May 2, 1872, chaniFd name of the company to The Texas and acific Railway Company. Under the new act 100 miles of consecutive road was to be in operation within two years from date of last act, not less than 100 miles built ea c h year thereafter, and the whole completed within ten years. Construction from San Diego eastward was to commence within one year, ten miles to be constructed before end of second year,, and 25 miles per year thereafter until Junct on made with line from the East. The Texas and Pacific never built west of Sierra Blanca, Texas. January 18, 1882, the company deeded to the S. P. R. R. companies of New Mexico and Arizona and to the Los Angeles and San Diego R. R. Co. (a Southern Pacific Company) its railroad franchise and property rights in New Mexico, Arizona and Southern California for trackage rights over the G. H. & S. A. from Sierra Blanca to El Paso, and other considerations. Congress declared the land grant to the T. & P in those sections forfeited by Act approved February 28, 1885, and the land grant accordingly reverted to the public domain. NOTE -a--Capital stock was increased April 15, 1871, to $70,000,000. To the previously a nounced route was add ed that from Mojave through Southern California to a connection with the Texas and Pacific on the Colorado River. Also a line from Gilroy to Salinas On April 3 the company had filed a map designating the general route of the road it claimed the right to build under the Texas and Pacific act. On May 16 a resolution of the Board of Directors accepted the terins, conditions and provisions of the same act, ,i-e347' ckanscontiheritai~ r~Liifoaug, tf~eNtArb.1 ' 1 Pacific was pushing forward eftt6nsioh€~'from its main line in California:!narthl into Sacramento Valley and south' intb,San Joaquin Valley. Under the name of the California and Oregon Railroad; C6mpany'a the line north had been extend6d:77 miles from Roseville and was in operation to Chico, when several separate companies operated by Stanford and his associates were incorporated August , 1870, under the one organizationCentral Pacific Railway Company. The story of building the line into Oregon will be told in a later chapter of this history. Early Surveys Following consolidation of the Central Pacific and Southern Pacific companies, the engineering and coDstruction forces worked interchangeably on the two lines, under supervision of S. S. Montague, chief engineer for the Central Pacific, and Col. Geo. E Gray, who had been appointed chief engineer for the Southern Pacific. Assistant Engineer Phelps had run preliminary surveys south from Southern Pacific's terminal at Gilroy as far as Phoenix, where he was stricken with fever and died. Assistant Engineer Slade made the surveys south of Lathrop in San Joaquin Valley as far as Tipton, from which point the line, practically as it remains today, was located through to San Antonio, Texas, by late Chief Engineer William Hood.1a Construction on the San Joaquin Valley line was started December 31, 1869, at Lathrop, a town located by the railroad's construction company on the main line between Sacramento and Oakland. About eleven miles NOTE: Sa-The first company Of this name was incorporated Tune 30, 1865. Reorganiza tions were effccted during t he luccee ding few years to take in vaI-iotis local railroad projects NOTE 9a-A.ccording to Lott D. Norton, who ,%as construction engineer over much of the San Joaquin Valley Line and who laid out inanv of the townsites along tke railroad. Wa -- u~dt adnAg- We- riisr' par-0 oi: 1870 extending to the Stanislaus River. a Track laying stopped at this point for a few months and work was not resumed until September, after the consolidations in August, 1870. From that point there was little delay in the railroad building and the line was pushed rapidly down the valley with much the same energy.that characterized the memorableconstruction work of the year before when the great drive was in full swing toward junction with the Union Pacific at Promontory, Utah. Modesto, Merced and Fresno were brought into existence in the next two years and during the summer of 1872 the Central Pacific's line had reached the survey of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company at a point which was given the name of Goshen. The construction company continued on without a stop, the only exception being that the work was now being done under the name of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company instead of the Central Pacific in order to take advantage of the land grant and right of way. Goshen marked the most southern point of Central Pacific's railroad building in California, 146 miles from Lathrop. Untouched Empire Nothing but the most optimistic hopes could have prompted the Central Pacific men to build a railroad into San Joaquin Valley. The great, broad plains were then practically unoccupied. When looking over the proposed route, Stanford and Hopkins, with their engineers, rode over the upper section of the valley on horseback and camped out. For miles and miles they rode without seeing any NOTE lOa-This section was constructed under the name of the San Joaquin Valley Railroad, a company which had been incorporated February 5, 1868, by men interested in bringing the trade of the valley to Stockton (Bancroft Vol. VIL P. 587). Sixty-three years have made many changes in the appeaniace of Market Street, San Francisco, since this picture was taken in x865. Thtre is not even a horsecar in sight down the broad way that is now lined with tall office buildings and which has become famous throughout the world. There was no ferry building JUNE, 1928 at the foot of the street until ten years after this view was taken from Moot gomery Street. Sailing 'hips landed at Market Street wharf, but the early day ferry boats from Oakhind and Alameda landed in the slips on Davis Street be tween Broadway and Pacific Street wharves. -,-o-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-~3. PAGE THIRTEEN TlaeElCapitan Hotel was one of the first buildings erected when the town of Merced was laid out by the Central Pacific in t872. Trains were first operated to that point on January 25, 1872, sad this picture was taken a short time after that. signs of habitation except an occasional sheep herder's cabin. Between Lathrop and Los Angeles the only towns of importance near the route of the railroad were Visalia, Bakersfield and Tehachapi, the last being a hamlet of about one store and a saloon. Bakersfield was but slightly larger. There were no land grants or government loans to aid in the construction costs on the line north of Goshen. But the Big Four had faith in the future of the valley. They visioned the country dotted with thriving cities and its rich acreage cultivated by thousands of farmers and orchardists who would be attracted there by the railroad. These were only hopes, however, and it took courage to build a road into an absolutely raw country that could promise no volume of traffic for some years tocome. Fresno Founded Practically all of the larger valley cities of today were just railroad towns in the 70's, founded and plotted by the railroad's construction company. Fresno was surveyed and staked out in May, 1872, on a barren sand plain. Water was no nearer than the San Joaquin River, ten miles away. There was no settlement of any kind, not even a shack. Yet when Stanford stood on the site in November, 1871, after having journeyed over the district and seen the plans being made for irrigationna he predicted to Jefferson M. Shannon, later land agent for the company, that Fresno would some day boast the best town on the railroad between Stockton and Los Angeles. a NOTE lla-A group of men including M. J. Church, Captain A. Y. Fasterby, F. Roed'ng and Wm. S. Chapman, had started constru~_ tion on a canal of the Fresno Canal and Irri1!,Inion Company which would bring water from gs River to the proposed new town and for use in irrigation of the surrounding district. The town was located almost in the center of an 81,000-acre tract owned by a German syndicate. NOTE l2a-Today Fresno is the metropolis PAGE POUItTEEN The prospects may have looked good to the enterprising railroad builders, but when the choice lots of the city of dreams were offered for sale at public auction, as was the custom of the railroad in opening new tow-risites, there were but few bidders. However, if there was to be a town there must be residents, so the company threw open its lots to voluntary settlement, with the understanding that if the occupants decided to remain on the property they would pay for it later. Trains were first operated on regular schedule into Modesto on November 8, 1870; to Merced on January 25, 1872; to Sycamore (now Herndon) on April 1, 1872; and to Fresno on May 28, 1872. The section between Goshen and Tipton was opened on July 25, 1872, six days before the line between Fresno and Goshen was ready for traffic. At Tipton construction rested until early in 1873 when another twenty-mile section was placed in service to Delano on July 14, 1873. Oxen vs. Iron Horse Great herds of sheep then grazed over the plains in that section of the valley and gradually the sheep men brought their flocks to the railroad terminus for shearing. This industry added impetus to the growth of the little town. There was much teaming and freighting and stories are told that the old teamsters looked very scornfully on the little locomotives. This feeling prompted a wager, so the story goes, that a team of eight oxen could out-pull any of them derned puffin' machines. All of which resulted in eight prize oxen getting heavily upset on their haunches. April 6, 1874, construction was re~ sumed from Delano continuing along the 50-mile tangent Engineer Hood had located. South of Famoso the of one of the richest sections in the West and is the second largest interior city in California (not including Pasadena) with an estimated population of 85,000. ULLETIN-E~~. line took a long curve to the east ward. Hood noticed large trunks of trees and other debris scattered over the low country in the vicinity of Bakersfield, washed there by floods from Kern River. It was to avoid the risk of washouts, also to gain the best possible location for a bridge across the river, that the line was kept on an elevation that did not make it practicable to run direct into Bakers field. Location for a station was ob tained on the higher ground a short distance from Bakersfield on which g din u ust 29, 1874. an is now a part of the city ;Or-611ft4 The road was completed to the north bank of Kern River and opened for traffic to that point on August 1, 1874. The bridge was ready in a few weeks and trains were run into Sumner. The railroad builders had now reached the end of comparatively easy construction through the valley with the exception of a few miles south of Bakersfield. Ahead of them towered the Tehachapi mountains. Here the engineers faced the problem of rising 4,000 feet to traverse 46 miles. Surmounting this obstacle was one of the biggest engineering achievements of early railroad building. How it was done will be told later. A brief review of branch line construction in later years is necessary at this point to complete the railroad's history in San Joaquin Valley. Built along the route of the original Southern Pacific land grant, a line was extended west from Goshen to Huron and was opened for traffic February 1, 1877. The line was completed to Alcalde in July, 1888. Along this branch has since developed several important cities, including Hanford, Lemoore and Coalinga. Stratford was connected in July, 1907. Between Armona and Kerman is the section completed on August 28, 1891; and from Hardwick to Ingle is the line opened by the Hanford and Summit Lake Railroad Company on April 14, 1912. The first surveys placed this section between Goshen and Alealde on the main line of the Southern Pacific. It was intended to connect Alealde with Tres Pinos in San Benito Valley through Pacheco Pass. Considerable kr4c'm - Agust 29, ra -a W fi tJW .,t f th fi, an Xi, Vw money was spent in locating a suitable line, but the cost of construction over the mountains and the expense of operation, also the lack or probability of local business, caused abandonment of the route and the land grant from Alcalde to Tres Pinos was forfeited. Railroads Near Stockton Enterprising people of San Joaquin County were early in the railroad field to see that a share of the business from the mining districts and the agricultural valley was directed to Stockton. As early as 1852 a railroad JUNF, 1929 7 t_4 go I 10 JUNE 1928 was projected from Stockton to Sonora, in Tuolumne County, by the San Joaquin Railroad Company. After organizing and disposing of stock the enterprise was abandoned. Ten years later the Stockton and Copperopolis Railroad Company was organized to build into the Copperopolls mining district which was then the center of much activity. The California legislature in 1863 authorized the counties in that vicinity to subscribe money in aid of the road. About eleven miles of roadbed was graded during 1866 but before track laying was commenced the richest of the mining deposits had been exhausted and prosperity of the Copperopolis district declined. Congress had been applied to for aid and a land grant (later revoked) was obtained in 1867. Failure of the mining industries forced the company to seek outside aid in construction. Track laying was started on the old grade during November, 1870, and opened the line to Milton on May 1, 1871. -a In the meantime the Stockton and Visalia Railroad Company was incorporated December 16, 1869. Instead of building over the originally planned route, a branch was extended from Peters, on the Copperopolis road, to Farmington on September 13, 1871, and to Oakdale on October 2. The properties of both roads were leased to the Central Pacific on December 80, 1874. NOTE 13a-Bancroft Vol. VII, p. 588. Hey WN San Franci 0*wd ~,a J0 a %4%7r -I,. The connection between Oakdale and Merced was built twenty years later under name of the Stockton and Tulare Railroad Company and was opened for traffic February 2, 1891. This company was incorporated December 2, 1887, and proposed to build a line parallel to the Central Pacific from Oakdale to Poso (now Famoso). Branches were to be built to the Central Pacific line from Modesto, Merced, Sycamore, Fresno, and Tulare. On May 14, 1888, the company consolidated with the Southern Pacific and it was over the proposed route of the Stockton and Tulare road that the present line was built and opened for traffic from Fresno to Porterville on July 1, 1888, and to Famoso on December 24, 1890. The seven-mile road between Goshen and Visalia was built by the Visalia Railroad Company and placed in operation on August 14, 1874. The property war leased to Southern Pacific in April, 1899. The year before Southern Pacific bad built its connection between Exeter and Visalia, which was placed in service November 29, 1898. The Porterville & Northeastern Railway Company opened the short line to Springville, September 18, 1911, and to Success on November 15, 1912. The road from Berenda to Raymond was ready for traffic on May 14, 1886. The Ione branch from Galt was opened December 3, 1876, and was built to tap the mines of Amador 4 rCed ~MMa M,d Triant Mb.Vgh c1mis T_ P~~r RWIey Se D-b~L cWt LIM.Y nre.119eilwy 0 ft . a- fd Ma -M,n Jtt.This map shows the lines built by Central Pacific and Southern Pacific companies in the San Joaquin and San Benito valleys, the history of which construction work is told in the accompanying chapter of From Trail to Rail. Previous chaptersof the history have told the history ofthe railroad indicated by broken lines on the map. SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN -,8 County. A few miles south of this is the Lodi Branch, which was formerly part of a narrow gauge line built by the San Joaquin & Sierra Nevada Railroad Company from Bracks Landing on the Mokelumne river through Woodridge and Lodi to Clements and Valley Springs to serve the copper mines in the latter district. It was opened to Wallace in October, 1882, and to Valley Springs in April, 1885. During 1888 it became a part of the Southern Pacific System and in 1904 was changed to standard gauge, the narrow gauge train making its last trip on August 31 that year. About the same time that part of the line between Woodbridge and Bracks was abandoned. Construction on the line down the west side of San Joaquin Valley was commenced during 1888 and was opened for operation from Tracy to Newman on July 1, to Los Banos on November 1, to Kerman on August 28, 1891, and to connection with the main line at Fresno on July 1, 1892. Fresno Traction Company opened the Biola branch on November 15, 1913; the Italian-Swiss colony was tapped by a line from Madera in 1899; and on January 20, 1892, the line from Fresno through Clovis to Friant was opened. (To be continued next month) Group Insurance Proved Blessing to Disabled Engineer The group insurance policy held by Walter C. Rank, Western Division engineer, came in mighty handy when sickness disabled him and necessitated his remaining in a hospital for treatment. In a letter to Superintendent T. F. Rowlands he expressed his appreciation of the insurance, as follows: During my active service with the Southern Pacific, I subscribed for and carried the Group Insurance Policy, not realizing at that time the benefits I was to. receive from it. But as time elapsed I was inflicted with a disease and admitted to the Southern Pacific hospital on April 6, 1926, and later transferred to the U. S. Veterans' Hospital at Livermore, California. Having no other source of income during my time of disability, I applied for benefits on my Group Insurance Policy on July 17, 1926, and to my happy surprise the first check for benefits was received on October 4, 1926, and monthly thereafter. On August 2, 1926, the face value of my policy was increased from $2500.00 to $3500.00, which automatically increased my monthly benefits. That first check was the spark that really enlightened me of how urgent the Group Insurance is to every employe of the Southern Pacific, as it has taken my place at the head of my family in supplying the needs of my wife and children during my absence from them by disability. PAGE FIFTEEN CHAPTER XXXI Los Angeles and San Francisco Connected by Railroad THERE remained by November, 1874, a gap of only 149 miles from Sumner, near Bakersfield, to San Fernando separating Los Angeles and San Francisco from their first railroad connection. But before this section was completed in September, 1876, the Southern Pacific engineers under Col. Geo. Grey and Win. Hood had accomplished two of the most difficult construction jobs met in building the entire railroad in the West. Rising from the floor of the San Joaquin Valley, the Tehachapi Pass was surmounted at an elevation of 4025 feet by a line of track that swerved back and forth up a mountain side through eighteen tunnels, and looped over itself by a remarkable stroke of engineering genius to climb 2734 feet in a distance of but 23 miles around gradual curves on a 2.2 grade. While more than 3000 men were working the hundreds of horses and dump carts on the road over the Tehachapi mountains, a force equally as large was piercing San Fernando mountains with a 6975-foot tunnel that carried the railroad from San Fernando Valley to connection with the line from the north. This tunnel of more than a mile and a quarter was then the second longest railroad tunnel in the United States. Bakersfield a Village During the four years that the Central Pacific and Southern Pacific were building the railroad south through San Joaquin Valley, Bakersfield had grown from a village to the proportions of a town with about 600 population. Incorporation was voted at an election on May 24, 1873, and in February the following year Bakersfield officially became the county seat of Kern County, displacing Havilah, a small mining town in the mountains about 30 miles away. a Every advance of the railroad shortened the distance that had to be traveled by NOTE 13a-Kern County Weekly Courier. PAGE TEN stage coaches and brought Bakersfield closer to its source of supplies from San Francisco. it took four days to go by stage coach from Havilah to San Francisco in 1868. Three times a week Th-oms' stages left the county seat for Visalia, where a change was made to Concord coaches bound for San Francisco. Twice a week stages left Havilah for Los Angeles and San Pedro, connecting with the steamers. Supplies were shipped from San Francisco to San Pedro and then hauled by freight teams through San Francisquito or Soledad canyons over steep mountain roads that were frequently made impassable by heavy rains and snow.1'a Four years later a combination rail and stage line carried a traveler from NOTE 14a-Havilali Weekly Courier, Jan. 4, 1868. PORTLANDY.109INGELE [ALL RAIL AND STAGE: LINE 81,pr. r..vlv seffIrlot re. 0M lftlb44 INTRIN UP Leaving S. Francisco via C.P.R.R Via Oakland Ferry at 4 O O. P'M. Passing Lathrop at 0.15p:m. ripton, (Terminus) & P. R. R. -v .TELEGRAPIR STACS &ZWx. t---.1--,-,__, Arrivisl; -11. &W6 sul &y Am 4 F. IL A-J3L3r-.AL41--3= SLEENNO COACHES Sx1V,;;X-W-C:9C0 loess-1 'FERNINW-i- P. _1L IL THROUGH TICKETS NEW NONTGOKERY ST.. San Francisco Was 48-hourstraveling distance from Los Angles, and 7o hours from Portlandtwhen this timetab e of the Southern Pacific and Cen ral Pacific was published in September, x872. Tipton was then the railroad terminus in San Joaquin Valley and three times a week trains made connection at that point with stage coaches for Los Angeles. Redding was the terminus of the Central Pacific in Sacramento Valley. Daily trains connected with stages which covered the 287 miles to Oakland, Ore., where connection was made with trains of the Oregon & California bound for Portland. - PACItFIQ BULLETIN ol3 ,--- SOUTHERN M San Francisco to Los Angeles in 48 hours. A Southern Pacific timetable published in September, 1872, announced train service three times a week from San Francisco to Tipton, where connection was made with stage coaches which covered the remaining distance of 252 miles to Los Angeles. With the approach of the railroad, settlers began to locate on the fertile valley lands around Bakersfield. Farming took on larger proportions and ranked along with mining and stock raising as important industries. The people of Bakersfield were looking forward to a day when their city would be the metropolis of a large and prosperous region. Sumner Located The railroad was opened for traffic to the north bank of Kern River on August 1, 1874. From the town we can hear the locomotive whistles, reported the Weekly Courier, and for all practical purposes the railroad has reached Bakersfield. This point on the river remained the terminus for a short time while a bridge was under construction. In the meantime, grading and track laying was completed south of the river. The bridge was ready about October 2 and a week later passengers and freight were handled to a temporary station on a projection of Second Street. A station building, offices, and side tracks were being built on the new townsite at Sumner, about a mile and a half from the business section of Bakersfield. Engineering requirements made it necessary to keep the railroad line on higher ground to the east of Bakersfield instead of going direct into the town. On October 26 a combination freight and passenger train was operated through to the new station and, commencing November 10, regular passenger service was inaugurated with a train arriving at 7 a.m. and leaving at 9 p.m. Grading gangs had pushed on ahead and by January 2, 1875, the road bed was ready for more than twenty miles south of Bakersfield. Shipments of rail were delayed and it was April JULY, 1928 cl T4 ta in 1E te m W ra T, C( in ov gi YE ru PC nc wl G. pa m( tic si~ wa of frc set pa: in~ Al of rt~ m! Ri sh, Col sh, ab! du Sol fol Co Jul 4 26 before the track was laid and trains operated to Caliente. This station was established at a settlement known as Allen's Camp. Here the railroad terminus rested for more than a year and Caliente enjoyed its temporary place in the sun while the region swarmed with hundreds of American and Chinese railroad builders. Daily stages bridged the 98 miles over the wagon road to the railroad terminus then at San Fernando, 22 miles from Los Angeles. By that time the rail and stage journey between San Francisco and Los Angeles had been cut to 33 hours. Scale Tehachapi It was from Caliente that the real climb started over the mountains. Tehachapi Pass had long been esi tablished as the most feasible otitle into southern California. As early as 1853 this divide was chosen by Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, a government eligineer, a in preference to Walkers Pass as the best route for a railroad. It was over this pass, called Tah-ee-chay-pah by the Indians, that Col. John C. Fremont took his troops in 1844. Preliminary surveys were made over the pass by Southern Pacific engineers in 1866 and during succeeding years several additional lines were run in an eff ort to establish the best possible grade and curvature. It was not until the winter of 1875, however, when construction work was actually NOTE l5a-Lieuteriants R. S. Williamson, J. G. Parke and Geo. B. Anderson constituted a party of engineers delegated by the government to explore and survey the most practicable route for a railroad from the Mi i - IssIs sippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The work was carried on during 1853-54 tinder direction of Secretary of War Jefferson Davis. Starting from army headquarters at Benicia, the party set out in the spring of 1853 to examine the passes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains leading from the San Joaquin and Tulare valleys. Also to explore the country to the southeast of Tulare Lake to ascertain the best railroad route between Walkers Pass, or such other as might be preferable, and the mouth of the Gila River. It was specified that the engineers should have an escort of at least three noncommissione& officers and 25 privates and should have the best horses and packers available. The party was in the Tehachapi region during the summer of 1853 and then went south ' selecting San Gorgonio Pass in San Bernardino Mountains as being the best Too te for a railroad south of Los Angeles to the Colorado River. under way, that Engineer Hood mapped out his famous loop. It was just a common sense plan, he explained in later years. Yet the expedient he used to make distance was then the talk of the engineering world and travelers -over the winding crooked road have never ceased to wonder how it was ever planned or built. Resembling two large circles drawn with a giant compass, the loop was tunnelled into the side of a ridge, twisted around the crest of the peak and back over the tunnel, gaining an elevation of 77 feet and bringing the line into position for easy gradient to the summit. In the present day, with powerful locomotives that pull long trains of freight cars, it is an uncanny but not uncommon sight to see a double- header of locomotives puffing over the top of the loop while the caboose is just entering the tunnel seventy-seven feet below, the train making a complete loop of itself. On the grade up the mountain it is possible to see the track above and below five different times as it winds its way around the hills and through the canyons. Starting from Caliente at an elevation of 1291 feet, a U turn was made and a swerving ascent of the This famous loop was the final stroke of engineering Vni,us which enabled the tracks of the Southern .c fie . to scale: the steep slopes of the Tehachapi mountains through eighteen tunnels climbing 2734 feet in a distance Of 28 miles around gradual curves on a 2.2 grade. Resembli two large circles drawn with a giant compass, the Moop was tunnelled into the side of a ridge, twisted around the crest of a peak and back over the tunnel gaining an elevation 01 77 feet in a very short distance. The above picture was taken in September, 1876, a few days after the through line was opened between Los Angeles and San Francisco. In this day of powerful locomotives it is not an uncommon thing to see a double header of locomotives puffing over the top of the loop while the caboose of the train is just entering the tunnel below. mountain begun instead of following up Tehachapi Creek canyon. After a six-mile climb the line rounded onto a slope at the head of,the canyon, down which could be seen the town of Caliente little more than a mile away on an air line. Just above this point (Bealville) was bored tunnel No. 5, the longest and most difficult to construct on the hill, as the Tehachapi mountain became known to railroad men. This tunnel was completed about March 10, 1876, and on April 6 track had been laid and the first locomotive passed through. The road was in operation to Keene (now Woodford) on May 26. Town Moves to Railroad The first swing of the loop was started just beyond Woodford, an(L in a distance of five miles to the prest~nt station of Marcel, an elevation of 587 feet was gained. Seven miles more of heavy climbing brought the railroad into the valley at the summit of the pass. About a mile beyond was located the station of Tehachapi and trains began operating that far on July 10, 1876. Residents in the pioneer town of that name, about four miles west, literally picked up their honies and moved them to the new I.A. I ULY. 1928 Havilab, a small mining town in the mountains, was the first county seat of Kern County and an important stage stop on the route from Visalia to Los Angeles. The county seat was moved to Bakersfield in February, z874. This picture, taken about 186o, is from the Ingersoll collection in the Los Angeles Library. 4io-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-4E~, PAGE ELEVEN it oo to 1871 1 ve years be ore it wa San rode for two days in stage coaches north along the coast or through the valley to LpsAi~'elesasi'i ke'd ii f s connected with the tiq -d San Francisco by the rail lines of the Central Pacific and 'reach the terminals of the railroad arid then went the remaining distance to San _c u!%V ~om Ih Pt -7 pardes. The business part of the little M exican city was then Fra:ncisco by train. Los Angeles'only railroad then was the short line to Wil north of First street centering aroundthe Plaza. More than 75 per cent of the raington which had been opened in October, 1869. In the above sketch a train is a' thousand inhabitants were of. Mexican descent. Travelers from the pueblo shown in the lower center proceeding along Alameda Street through young orange ix groves to the station then located at Commercial street. 'on the railroad. The site of nus for two years until the railroad Ahe rollicking mountain town that had was extended to a point near the witnesse o any :Wild ~and wooly South portal of the tunnel being built d s in- ~ ': frontier' aays was soon deserted ex- through the mountains. Iew=1 souls and the Building San Fernando tunnel was me Just -as Old a gigantic job. Softness of partof the material through which, the bore summit reached, -corilstruc- was driven,, and theabundance of e d -along -ra-p-ldly through the water encountered, caused the work to the~kojaVe Aesert.:~ -Trains progress slower than if the earth ere rurL~, oJave on- August 8 and-formation had been more solid. The om t - a t o - in It the '-track was laid in work was pushed night and day:,b y ac ica y~, a s - alg_ht`Iine'acro€s_ An-- 4000 men and 300 animials. Shafts op e --.- va ey.-tb the th of -Soledad, were sunk and. the-walls of the motin -anyoni,-wli,ere'i]i6-'-I~~'t:big,dr'lve 'Was, tain Were 'attacked - fi,bm four faces. to ne6tion wit th rai ma e a -- con h 6 1- Work started March 27, 1875, and the 9 y m th I headinks met July-14 the -following --rod o_ e--.sotit , which 'had just T emeather,Aoo, was delightful. - ,~On ong an- - Y_-,entering.t e-,dark,abyss of-the S year. Tra, `W ~Aed, ~4r6ifgh, the ek'-Iayinkl,,-'fbllowed'-e~loseI h long P-c d tu- I' f c'om'p ete- separa was exten 'ed-Into th f d canyon- be-, e:, _nne~ :a,, ee ing o bl Ary p aces. seized one. Arm-rda-d '.hi'-t f. Los 'An ~g -yon w ere Ah 'Hifi -, -f ii ilie `n6fth - - s ory -6 e, e - -roi ion from,su iiiii I~s, -s ;6; io ayagged _4ext ap er;., q to!~~ mpt,~, e 6 a 2: Sta ec ime-_ ver - onr arig; ~poin 1 - 1-6 7b-& ~,h e 6~ a e isl t- t 4,11-- t - -6 s4ge.-.~~.~41: muneriah.;.Pas _g iorr'-:t- A.~_p --H e, ent h rain, a~ _orlom~o h` juif~ _ana'_ _9ng 'in' h, or a ~Iiioh thr-6 tig -.,~~,IEvery q y- R ~Z ire si6W~I X0 iqz o ~_is was~jtn, -el 9, fflwn~e, , - L , nge es- was jmpress2. in' ine of the railroad A `d'the pers4v6i iyons-I_;,.--.* -ere a9t _--M w 0 M -WondeRul' W~'6r ~_an 'ds ln~i e e - W, A li ?,be ee pi e .-a -ance, ~.-_-,energy and ~'s-kill -~-requl Acisco-and.-Los-- hge es. --P-_,-, great ibe~~vast 6~nt in w lrqcti6n,,bE -,this- i-t that city mols 4n,~ -,Jo ns. rmWo a&,,.,,-o ro in '~O`S- ng get- s -was-, the eavi- e'w' all,-'We.~passe - seVei t~c_es ~- z I k'. . '- -11 ie~e_,_-, N 'the~ ~,_~Ars,t transconti- Are h '.of-,,, t - o4g-, qme ,a par y,in -ftne . oo ing Jand, 'we ga ii~-j - - -----2!Jqi '4444ry'- to': thd nation ~s'even- ~timbered,.',,'P'r~e!€6-iiti~i-, here- - nAjh~ere_ 4 r.;~, e.--- ne - a ne- ' or % -soon -w,,S_,,ope T - --triffic -y -ars e or~-_. yea d -yery hanilsonf6` jiov6i; -~n4~ -,en This' was'the. ~_,,speqiaf train- of five cars drawn tered the.Soledad rpglor'~,-awlid, weir-d' JULY-, 1928 ~~,SCIEJTHER_N PACJVIC HLJLLKTIN-e3:-, by locomotive No. 25, decorated with flags and streamers, left the station on Commercial and Alameda streets at 9:30 in the morning. More than 350 -prominent people of Southern California- were the invited,guests of the Southern Pacific. As the train passed through San Fernando, Tunnel, Newhall and other stations, more passengers were taken onto the special., . The cars were not uncomfortably crowded, - wrote a I reporter for the Los ' Angeles- Evening Express,. and the -trip was made _pleasant by the exceedingly ood humor of ever-hod I I I 406 17 IrT I and seemingly inhospitable section. Reaching the end of the track at noon we were met with one of the most picturesque sights imaginable. Before us, formed in a line on either side of the road bed, was an army of about three thousand Chinamen standing at parade rest with their longhandled shovels. Everyone of them was covered by a big basket hat, and the long line of head roofs presented a curious picture. The Los Angeles visitors were greeted at the end Of the track by Chas. Crocker, president of the Southern Pacific; Col. Geo. Gray, chief engineer; and J. H. Strobridge, superintendent of construction. A special train from the north arrived at 1:15 bringing Governor Leland Stanford, president-of the Central Pacific; General D. D. Colton, vice president of the Southern Pacific; Mayor A. J. Bryant of San Francisco, and fifty other distinguished men from the northern part of the state. In the meantime many people from over the countryside had driven to Lang by teams and, when the ceremonies were ready to start, the canyon was crowded with more than five hundred visitors from over the state in addition to the small army of men composing the construction crews from the north and south. Track Laying Race There remained about 1500 f~et of track to be laid before the gap in the railroad was closed. The road bed was graded and the ties all in place ready for the final rails. A tracklaying race between the opposing camps was staged as a special event for the visitors. On account of working with 30-foot rail and having two gangs of rail handlers operating at the same time, the side from the north was delegated to lay 1000 feet of track, while the remaining distance was covered by the southerners using 24-foot rail and having only one tracklaying gang. The people gathered along the roadway to watch the contest. J. B. Harris, who was in charge of track work, dropped his hat as a signal to start. The race was nip-andtuck, and, when the Southern crew reached their mark abouta rail length ahead of the men from the north, the canyon echoed with the cheers of the contingent from Southern California. It had taken eight and a half minutes to bring the rails together, and, while the Chinese spikers were finishing the job, the people congregated around the spot where the last spike was to be driven. a The boiTor of driving the golden spike presented bv---LJ-~V,--1,%Ach A NOTE l6a-Reminiscencei~~6C*.' H: Mone6e, who was foreman of the track-laying crew from the south and who was later on the work of building the railroad across Arizona and New Mexico and west from San Antonio to the Pecos River. in later years Monroe acquired some land near Los Angeles, on a por!ion of which is located the city of Monrovia, named in his honor and where he was still living in 1927. JULY, 1928 Los Angeles jeweler, was given to Chas. Crocker. Not only was he given this recognition as being president of the Southern Pacific, but because, as Mr. Colton remarked at the time, no man living or dead had superintended the construction of as many miles of railroad on the face of the globe as Gifted Dancer Miss Majorie LeVoe alented daughter of A. J Lebourveau, dispatcher of Shasta Division, witK headquarters at Dunsmuir. By F. BROWN Bulletin Correspondent, Du sinuir A NOTHER member of the South ern Pacific family who seems des tined to receive wide acclaim for her dancing and musical accomplishments, is Miss Marjorie LeVoe (Lebourveau), daughter of Dispatcher A. J. Lebour veau of the Shasta Division. Miss LeVoe has studied classical dancing under Theodore Kosloff for three and one-half years and during the past two years has been connected with the Estelle Reed Studios in San Francisco. She has appeared in Grand Opera both in Los Angeles and San Francisco, also with Pantages and Fanchon and Marco theatrical circuits. Last fall she was declared the winner in the Goddess of the Air beauty contest held by radio station KYA of San Francisco when she was awarded the golden apple and proclaimed America's First Goddess of the Air. Miss Marjorie has received several flattering offers to appear in moving pictures but is at present intent upon first obtaining a dancing cereer. The two Duncan sisters, Topsy and Eva, have interested themselves in her and have promised her a part in their new musical comedy, the Heavenly Twins. .:p-SOUTHERN PACIFIC BULLETIN-0 had Mr. Crocker. The spike was driven into place at 1:58 p.m. with a silver hammer also donated for the oreasion by Mr. Thatcher. Prayer was offered by Rev. W. H. Platt of San Francisco, following which, speeches were made by Mr. Colton, ex-Governors Stanford and Downey, Mayors Bryant of San Francisco and P. Beaudry of Los Angeles, and by Gen. Phennis Banning. Late in the afternoon the return trip was made to Los Angeles, the special from San Francisco taking the honor of being the first train to make the through trip from the northern city. A banquet at Union Hall that evening coneluded the day's celebration. a Awake to the advantages that would accrue to the southern part of the state with the arrival of the railroad, and as a tribute to the Big Four builders, the Los Angeles Express of that day made the following editorial comment: S. P. Kept Its Promise This happy consummation will be celebrated in a much more signal manner than the banquet this evening. Its fitting celebration will be the filling up of the ample domain of Los Angeles County with prosperous homes. Rapid settlement and enhancement of values, a hopeful and vigorous life in our young and growing community, will be a permanent and ever fructifying celebration of an event whose coming we have waited for years, and whose rapid progress to its consummation today, without the money aid of the government, and with only such assistance from caPitalists as the intrinsic merits of the enterprise extorted, is a sterling tribute to the energy, sagacity and indomitable perseverance of its projectors. They have not only lived up to the letter of their promises; but, in face of difficulties that were fairly gigantic, they have reached Los Angeles sooner than the most sanguine of us expected. Regular train service was inaugurated between Los Angeles and San Francisco on September 6, 1876, with an Express train making the run north in 24 hours 40 minutes and south in 23 hours 30 minutes. An Emigrant train (combination train with freight and emigrant passenger cars) made the trip north in 34 hours 55 minutes and south in 44 hours 30 minutes. NOTE 17a-Los Angeles Evening Express, September 6, 1876. (To be continued next -Onth) TWO Other Fellers Hey, any Of you fellers lose a wrench? Yea, me. gyp What's your name. Mike Connors. You ain't the guy. This wrench belongs to Pat Pending. His name's on it. -Ziffs. PAGE THIRTEEN d1d' nof exist. ~f vVere I I ' ' r pran of' stan ong-, ~urndys- Co ffitro6ce such a nt e Only ~Xrfdgftd' en ~acc6u of s~me, ex- dard time, io take eff et at noon No tr9cirdihafY 4ff-drge'ncy.J-h cf&Tcg Vember 18, 1883. ere J 4~ ffudh- df A. fakdry Local time, with all -its accompany a e -&nt je'i6d- a,- ing compfications and difficulties, so nglish - aflk. tax of AV shillings ayeffi?'~6h t ehf.- 6k aq railroad . operation was con So~-it is clear to see that AnY.- 9*Yt I ~ of' cerned, tlien became a thing of the ered u c. 9tandard Time varies time was consid s fri len to pasl. us rank -and 'file and ~, presui;nably -, only~ fib - in that uf Greftwwkh in whole -6tots. hen ose in- affluent'circimlsf _ 6i_ w6re VV it fls~ f gr.-Ml noon at Gr em ces. ich 44 -1: -111~ M66gipifS41egree-g, - or, una e enough-.to ow ime-pie- West M, d- f& d`e-p6&-; east of J $e` Ad h e~ ;,,.__oweverj 'BY &HfY fh6 ilful€fritiov e. T e',conli YL ian wed the 96M. meridi' is Pacific Standard time, and' 41in - .'sc s the greater portion of South e n -Ahose'~of the fi pe_rations) is 8 hours be ne s n & ers moving, over an g-, d Greenwich time, and 120 'found,., that of Greenwich is 8 houri d. Aint- 6 'Greenwich time. isagree ew-ith-the local a Jri:~qities' through w ichA ey:,p d i Zones in tL S. ass 6 . o u of -time zones is ar d- th d many w lvm(n -,ra I ngq ~as arly as practi able r idhe one-raiiroa ~center, ln icating-- th ~e` -b _ -een:time ineridiancs so t%at way etw n epar- s ce between local v&41 _~,i tuie 4 tiiiiiii nort ---the --,grea* t di eren line and standard time is not more -E6nfu9ion~rrfdk- we 3 .-e Jinagine hour at any given point. I b, _d, than o A mperative-1 at some a. I t--,-A , liedini6 - i h: f -, , - to. a map describing the Re erence 1!!g_,be` iC so] ution t0- t e- tim zo s o th- _4 _66 I '.'h e - n6 _' t f he United States wi i,~ proble' m-...-Xhis *&si overcome- to:.some, give a- Comprehensive u-nd-erstandffig exient-by the`:raiIr-6W& adopt I ing I the :;of this -arrangement, From, this it ditiesAn be gb6fi that, we -11ave f6a;r ~time trict Ili' - h h* the- is h it, t A d - th United Stxtes-tfiat roug w ic _ q s a n ar s in e e1W '86 'h-' - of the t5th_ meridian, known ag,kast even -t is'was,p p-ly. 'a e n rd, ine; tha. t o f t h asuke-of reli d'ff Ad T. f_a~ e Wth s- a- n er-~_ I -t e5cistd r -Standard Time; that a -.~,between rail oad mei tiriie ~arid 1 1 t tb6,, 105thMeridian, Mountain Stand line. qgge'sts-~W_orld tanAai4 -5Hm~- ~ and~'*h 120th meridian, S aid Pacific ndard Time, The irreg rif 1870 CbdrIe'_ bowd, es -dividing these zones is -of Saratoga Sta ular ity of the lin Springs, made the suggestion that an because certain'cities or districts*have international Aime standard be' 6stab-: -go i reasons foe using od and suffic. ent the- timing of all civil p6r- , or the the Vine 6f either one zone ~Sui s it 'The suggestion was not acted oth6r.`_ 'until -1879 when it was taken up -upon - Changes in time standards aff ect an ew by 8 ~fidford Fleming, at that Aime chief - engineer-of the Canadian 'Pacific'',Rall 'road, who, through the Canadian Institut Agency~ 6f e, in -66duc6~1`11ie. subject officially to the I ---leading: ~g&ernments_ of the world, e __ . I- view o ringing' about a -wItli-th f b ity An designating- the: hours onih`~Valy-lni civil. e. , United States - Congress 'h 64 the- ~rezident to call - an A--.,AA_ rria, iona -4-id f r the a .,..co erence ~o pu opt form, common ad'- ing -a uni kimeridiaft`16,be 'used in reckon Ia ongii q e-,_An~ ftf~-universa regu `tiine~-,-throug out -t e on., of h- - h h ' Id ~-, _J Wpr - C--the-:c6rifJence were repre ntrie~;:., b Qn,,.,,___e~.qqes on-0 ffi-4 fli d fa oi- f&'-,J- - f ~ -b' `16 __ J. e._~eac f yi~ 'h6 Or,'. avore es I t a ` -of -1 Al E o.qgi,u q__ reenwic ng 46fig origin Jt6 es e ~~,,-con er l3efore t _4 M~cl t -the' a a selected es.aii an d hid 6, ~tari ard irieridiansAd be -_-rec on'e'ed.. in multi-l- ~- 5-f.-As de-`-'. p es greps ~of -Greenwic' , -.45 ~de* ._w t f, 4 _ - es h ~gMAV g:e-qpq -o.one.hout-6 time, ~~--An ~'on,,,4 c. ober 18, 1881, V~-cdll6d , b , y' , W.- k 'A was; al ail which, lt Point Story of 1869 Record Recalls Early Days to President of Fe The following lette,,'irt I part, has been ceivea by F. Tied.ay fron B. Storey, president orfe the Santa Fe-. have read with, vei~ great' interest the article in the May number of the sodificiii Pacific, Bulletin entitled, 'A Rail, toad Record Tbai Defies Defut.'~ frig the movement of`.TouMern Paeffic .,trains,. occur only at Yurm4_Ari2r., at which point. passengers :set their wat4hes backward or forw=d onEe . hour. East and west-bound-p4ssen-gers on our ~Overland, Golden, State - and Sunset routes set their watches; backward or forward one hour wheni reaching, or leaving our rails at Ogden,, Tucumcari and El Paso. Every department in a railroad'si activities is benefited by accuratetime..- For this reason Southern Pa-cific has a, department which specializeg in time service. It is the business i of the Time Service. Department to protect train movements from hazardous situations arising as a result of time variation.,. Not only is time accuracy necessary in closely adhering to schedules but in negotiating meets and passings, which are often madei on short time, watches of train crewsj must be accurate to prevent unsaf(-condition's arising. The watches of 12,000 employes. oni Paci9c Itine's are subject to our Time- Service require - ments. and comply *ithi very exacting rules and specifications.. At regular intervals these watches; are carefully examined 6 ' - y in-spatt=; appointed by the. Company. Alt traiiii and enginemen visit an inspector twiee! a month and watches are set. if a, vari-ation is shown of twenty seconds or. more from Standard Time. Haste Makes Waste The need for A greater interest int accurate time is well illustrated to those of our readers who are daily commuters to surburban points. Note! the fiantic rush of the people who, patronize our ferry boats during the; peak hour between 5:00) and 6:00 p. in You will see commuters running for the gate when, as a mattey, of fact, there may be several minutes t*spare~. All the attendant worry and excite-. ment in making connections could be! ,eliminated with correct Standard Time~ in the pocket of each individual. If' the public would take the same Enter est in having precise time'llial is the habit. of. railroad. men, 1~1 u . neouhted hours, now wasted, would be., saved, a nd,pro bably a good man y .'hea , it all ments could be avoided-too.' A Scotch Story recently al~pearirrg in a. popular weekly tells -7-mlamy years ago, and in fact during my us that. ,~Sand3r 1-MacPheiso-li, i-ifter f-mg T railroad,life, U~ras emooyed by the Pacific io,'the- gng'jn' D a t rit Q ~fecqgnizglhe co rh iptlofl-g en w ~6~i of tra'A Uyin _1 -bL ere, is strobr, ga persanall hafidlethe' orkandthat'whentherelay i the iron jing came, t6 relieve the original ii-&' the fatt& to be re[)hced and ifiort the iiiiie men handled ihe entire i A _-A. n eso iroh rai s in that oniday. You note fir -in the ficsimile ofthe '- I .-M 1-1 ~;~ -~ in the: , ay~Assue tha ,kKir d4is~ time' t6i 2~- S OUTHEAN PACIFle BULLETIN -4 . 1 -1 - - ' J - i- ~ being sh'8 w-r-to'nhis -ro-dim -in ~ 1 .1 ~ -11, h- ~ A , '_ _; looked --'from, t F6 *hfi ow and -fiqticed a, large-jIluminatel .cIpck .in aAower,*_ e -across th t 14 ~t oppq 1 e -many ~,-q n 'all ~wdlks d If )eopl e, are :not unlike the. Scofchman.~---, They do much hot 'give t eir,'wate'es-as ey devo e o e awn I mow6r, care as th t' f th I or the family washing inacfiine~,!~Z;-Fot f f t ti `t. Ah lac o compe en -a en ion eir - Ae co watches are seldom - in~ in which they left -Oe-m~- an~lif:kturet are t t in.& a cons an ly ti, - time-ke6pers. This is 'false economy-,. rs The few dolla . of expense,~ involved e - wateb,br-block 6 - d in having on 's 16ahe